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Laura s Anatomy and Phys flashcards 1


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anatomical position
body in standard postion
body erect with the feet parallel and the arms hanging at the sides, palms forward
directional terms
used by medical atomists, allows them to explain exactly where one body structure is in relation to another
superior (cranial or cephalad)
toward the head end or upper body, the forehead is superior to the nose
inferior (caudal)
toward the lower structure of the body, below
anterior (ventral)
toward or at the front of the body, the breastbone is anterior to the spine
posterior (dorsal)
toward or at the backside of the body, the heart is posterior to the breastbone
toward the middle of the body, the heart is medial to the arm
away from the middle of the body, the arms are lateral to the chest
beytween a more medial and a more lateral structure, the armpit is intermediate between the breastbone and the shoulder
closer to the body's point of attatchment, the elbox is proximal to the wrist, the elbow is closer to the shoulder or attatchment part than the wrist
farther from the orgin of the body part or point of attatchment, the knee is distal to the thigh
toward or at the body surface, the skin is superficial to the skeleton
away from the body surface more internal, the lungs are deep to the ribcage
anatomical body part, anterior body trunk inferior to the ribs
anterior surface of elbow
cheek area
neck region
fingers toes
area where thigh meets body trunk
nose area
eye area
anterior knee
lateral part of the leg
geniteal region
breatbone area
ankle region
cut through the middle, back to the stomach
cut through the middle going through each arm
cut through the middle, at waist
posterior, head
curve of shoulder formed by large deltoid muscle, posterior
buttock posterior
area of back between ribs and hips
posterior surface of the head
posterior knee area
shoulder blade region
the posterior surface of the lower leg the calf
area of spine
where a section or cut is made
sagittal organ
cut made along the length wise longitudal, cuts body into right and left parts
midsaggital or median section
if the body is cut the median way and hte two sides are equal
frontal section
cut made length wise divides the body into andterior and posterior
coronal section
cut made length wise divides the body into andterior and posterior
transverse section
divides the body into superior and inferior parts
cross section
divides the body into superior and inferior parts
dorsal body cavity
two, subdivisions which are continuous with each other
cranial cavity
space inside the bony skull, where the brain occupies, dorsal
spinal cavity
extends from the cranial cavity nearly to the end of the vertebral column, surrounded by the vertebrae, dorsal
ventral body cavity
much larger, than dorsal cavity, contains all the structures with in the chest and abdomin, subdivided
thoractic cavity
superios ventral, organs protected by the rib cage
dome shaped muscle seperates the thoracid cavity from the rest of the ventral cavity
abdominopelvic cavity
inferior to the diaphragm, some divide it into the superior abdominal cavity, comtaining the stomach, liver, intestines, adn other organs and the inferior pelvic cavity with the reprductive organs, bladder, and rectum, sometimes divided into quadrants, sometimes divided into 9 regions
umbilical region (abdominopelvic)
centermost region, deep to and surrounding the umbilicus
epigastric (abdominopelvic)
superior to the umbilical region
hypogastric (abdominopelvic)
inferior to the umbilical region
right and left iliac or inguinal regions (abdominopelvic)
lateral to the hypogastric region
right and left lumbar regions (abdominopelvic)
lie lateral to the unbilical cord
right and left hypochondria regions
flank the epigastric region and contain the lower ribs
atudy of structure and shape and body parts and their relationship to on another greek word means to cut apart
gross anatomy
large easily observable structures, disecting dead things
microscopic anatomy
when using a microscope to see cause the creatures are very small, usually with cells and tissues
the study of how the body adn its part s work neurology-workings of the nervous system cardiac-function of the heart
relationship between anatomy and physiology
the parts of your body form a well organized unit, and each of those parts has a job to make the body operate as a whole
the smallest unit of all living things
a structure, composed of two or more tissue types that perform a specific function in the body
organ system
highest level of structural organization, 11 total organisms, m
chemical ladder, building blocks of water combine to form water, sugar, and protein
consistes of groups of similiar cells witha common function
a group of organs that cooperate to accomplish a common purpose
integumentary system
external covering of the body, the skin, waterproofs the body and cushions and protects the deeper tissues from injury, excrtes salts and urea, temperature pressure and pain receptors
skeletal system
bones, joints, ligaments, and cartilages, supports and protects the body, bones store minerals
formation of blood cells, goes on with in the cavities of the skeleton
muscular system
muscles contract and shorten, skletal muscles, large fleshy muscles attatched to the bones, form the muscular system
nervous system
body's fast acting control system, brain, spinal cords, nerves, and sensory resptors, sends messages,
endocrine system
produces and releases hormones into the blood hormones,
endocrine glands
pituary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, thymus, pancreas, pineal, ovaries, amd testes, secrete hormones
produced in endocrine system, conteol growth, reproduction, and food
cardiovascular system
heart and blood vessels, carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and other substances to and from tissue, wbc's help protect the blood, while the heart "pumps blood"
lymphatic system
lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, adn other lymphoid organs, return leaked fluids to the blood, lymph nodes-cleanse the blood and help the cells involved in immunity
repiratory system
keep body constantly supplied with oxygen and remove carbon dioxide, trachea, bronchi, and lungs-where gas is exchanged
digestive system
tube from mouth to anus, mouth, stomach, intestines, rectum, they break down food and deliver the products, reclaim water, pancreas-delivers digestive enzymes
urinary system
rids the body of nitrogen containing wastes, aka excretory system,
reproductive system
primarily to produce offspring,
what main 8 things does the human body do?
movement, maintaining boundaries, responsiveness, digestion, metabolism, excretion, reproduction, growth
maintaining boundaries
bodys containg a exterior membrane, the integumentary skin, keeps organs from drying out
includes all activities promoted by the muscular system, also occurs on the internal structure
irratibility, the ability to sense changes in the environment and to react to them, mainly done by the nervous system
process of breaking down indigested food into simple molecules that can then be absorbed into the blood for delivery to all blood cells,
all the chemical reactions that occur in the body, ATP molecules-energy rich molecule that power cellular activities, depends on digestive and repiratory system, regulated chiefly buy hormones secreted by the glands of the endocrine
removing wastes, several organs
production of offspring, regulated by hormones, uses sperm and eggs
increase in size, increase in number of cells,
survival need s
nutrients, oxygen, water, appropriate temperature, adn atmospheric pressure
chemicals used for energy and cell building, carbohydrates are major energy providing fuel proteins and fat used for building, fats cushion,
chemical actions that release energy from food 20% air we breathe
some type of sensor that monitors and responds to change in the environment, responds to stimuli
afferent pathway
information flows from one control center
control center
determines the level (set point at which a variable is to be maintained, analyzes the information that it recieves and then determines the appropriate response or coarse of action
provides the means for the control centers output, either continues it or shuts it off
negative feedback mechanisms
most homeostatic mechanisms are this, shut off origingal stimulus to reduce its intensity
positive feedback
much more rare in the body, do not require continuous adjustments, blood clotting and childbirth
homeostatic imbalance
when homeostasis is disturbed, results in disease and aging
the single most abundant chemical substance in the body and provides the fluid base for body excretions .
body temperature
37%, cant drop or rise to high
atmospheric pressure
the force exerted on the body by the weight if air , high or low atmospheres affect it

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