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What are key terms used to describe directionality in dentistry?
Directional terms in dentistry include: labial, buccal, lingual, apical, coronal, occlusal, and interproximal.
What does the term labial describe?
Labial describes the surface of the tooth towards the lip.
What does the term buccal describe?
Buccal describes the surface of the tooth towards the cheek.
What does the term lingual describe?
Lingual describes the surface of the tooth towards the tongue.
What does the term apical describe?
Apical describes the surface of the tooth towards the root.
What does the term coronal describe?
Coronal describes the surface of the tooth towards the crown.
What does the term occlusal describe?
Occlusal describes the surface of the tooth facing the opposite jaw.
What does the term interproximal describe?
Interproximal describes the surface between adjoining teeth.
What is the role of the assistant in veterinary dentistry?
Assistants help to provide client education, assist the tech and vet, and perform basic prophy.
What are the 3 chief complaints causing presentation of the animal to the clinic?
The 3 chief complaints are: halitosis, health concerns, and cosmetic reasons.
What kind of health concerns are usually related to dental issues?
Health concerns of owners related to dental issues are: fractures, abscesses, and weight loss.
What are the statistics concerning periodontal disease in dogs and cats?
1 in 3 over the age of three have periodontal disease.
What are 4 terms used to describe the external anatomy of the tooth?
External anatomy terms include: crown, neck, root, and apex.
What are 3 terms used to describe the internal anatomy of the tooth?
Internal anatomy terms include: enamel, dentin, and pulp chamber.
What are 4 terms used to describe the peridontium?
Peridontium terms include: attached gingiva, cementum, aveolus, and attachment apparatus.
What is the crown?
The crown is the exposed part of the tooth protruding above gingiva.
What is the neck?
The neck is the junction between crown and root.
What is the root?
The root is the portion below gumline not covered by enamel.
What is the apex?
The apex is the portion of root deepest in jawbone.
What holds teeth in place?
Vessels, arterties, nerves, and periodontal ligament are located in area of apex to hold teeth in place.
Where is enamel?
Enamel covers the exposed crown of the tooth.
What are the characteristics of enamel?
Enamel functions as a protective covering for the inner layers of the tooth, and is one of the hardest substances on earth.
What is dentin?
Dentin is living tissue that comprises the bulk of tooth in crown, neck, and root.
What is the pulp chamber?
The pulp chamber is the inside portion of tooth containing nerve tissue, blood vessels, and connective tissue.
Where is attached gingiva located?
Attached gingiva extends from free gingival crest to mucogingival line.
What is cementum?
Cementum is modified bone that covers dentin below gum line.
What is an alveolus?
An alveolus is cavity or socket of jaw that surrounds and supports root of tooth.
What is attachement apparatus?
Attachment apparatus refers to periodontal ligament, veins, arteries, and nerves.
What is eruption?
Eruption is the process of tooth pushing thru gingival tissue.
What is another name for baby teeth?
Baby teeth are also called deciduous teeth.
Which teeth are most commonly retained?
The canine teeth are most commonly retained.
When should deciduous teeth be lost?
Deciduous teeth should be lost by the age of 6 months.
What is the order in which teeth usually erupt?
Teeth usually erupt in this order: incisors, canines, premolars, and molars?
What are cheek teeth?
Molars are also called cheek teeth in horses.
What is the purpose of dental formulas?
Dental formulas help to determine how many teeth an animal should have.
How many deciduous teeth do felines have?
Felines have 26 deciduous teeth.
How many permanent teeth do felines have?
Felines have 30 deciduous teeth.
What is the difference in the dental formula between the deciduous and permanent teeth in felines?
Feline permanent teeth have 2(M 1/1), which adds 4 more teeth.
How many deciduous teeth do canines have?
Canines have 28 deciduous teeth.
How many permanent teeth do canines have?
Canines have 42 deciduous teeth.
What is the difference in the dental formula between the deciduous and permanent teeth in canines?
Canine permanent teeth have an additional premolar , and 2 (M 2/3), which adds 14 more teeth.
What is the time frame for the first teeth to erupt for dogs and cats?
Incisors begun to erupt for cats and dogs at age 2 to 5 months.
When do canine teeth usually erupt in dogs and cats?
Canine teeth usually erupt at age 5 to 6 months.
When should dogs and cats have a full set of permanent teeth?
Dogs and cats should have a full set of permanent teeth by 8 months of age.
Which tooth in horses is called a wolf tooth?
The wolf tooth is premolar 1.
How many deciduous teeth do equines have?
Equines have 24 deciduous teeth.
How many permanent teeth do equines have?
Equines have 40 to 42 permanent teeth.
Which teeth can be present at birth in horses?
Horses can be born with incisors and premolars 1, 2, and 3.
What is the leading cause of tooth loss?
The leading cause of tooth loss is periodontal disease.
What is the most common ideology for periodontal disease?
The most common ideology for periodontal disease is bacterial infections.
What are the 11 signs of periodontal disease?
Periodontal signs include: edema, inflammed gingival crest, halitosis, calculus, pus, recession, ulceration, bleeding upon probing, bone loss, tooth mobility, and tooth loss.
What are the 4 stages of periodontal disease?
Periodontal disease stages include: Stage 1 Gingivitis, Stage 2 Advanced Gingivitis, Stage 3 Established Periodontitis, and Stage 4 Advanced Periodontal Disease.
What are the 5 signs of healthy periodontal status?
Healthy periodontal status signs are: coral pink color, smooth gums, firm tissue, defined stippling at gum margin, and minimal probe depth.
What are the 6 signs of gingivitis?
Gingivitis signs include: gingival inflammation, red color, bleeding with probling, loss of stippling, presence of nutrophils, yet no deterioration of supporting tissues.
What are the 4 signs of advanced gingivitis?
Signs of advanced gingivitis include: relatively smooth gums, inflammation of periodontal ligament, bleeding and edema upon probing, and tooth still stable and immobile.
What are the 7 signs of established periodontitis?
Signs of established periodontitis are: moderate loss of periodontal ligament attachment, moderate to deep pocket formation, 10 to 30% loss of supportive bone, furcation exposure, inadequate gingival topography, slight tooth mobility, yet can be reversed with increased oral hygiene.
What are 2 signs of advanced periodontal disease?
Signs of advanced periodontal disease are advanced breakdown of supportive tissues and severe pocket depth and recession.
What is plaque?
Plaque is a soft film comprised of microorganisms on tooth surface.
What is calculus?
Calculus is a hard deposit found on tooth surface that can be both above and below gumline.
What is prophylaxis?
Prophylaxis is cleaning to prevent periodontal disease.
What is sulcus?
Sulcus is no space between tooth and gingiva.
What is a pocket?
A pocket is the presence of space between tooth and gingiva.
What is a furcation?
Furcation is the area where multi-rooted tooth meet.
What protective equipment is needed for safe dental cleaning?
Protective equipment needed for safe dental cleaning includes: cap, mask, goggles, gloves, and lab coat.
What 2 protective steps are taken for patients prior to performing a dental cleaning?
Patient is usually put on antibiotics 3 to 4 days prior to cleaning and a blood chemistry panel is performed.
What is the purpose of performing a blood chemistry panel?
A blood chemistry panel helps to determine an animal's ability to withstand procedure and how well body will metabolize anesthetic.
What are 3 steps should be made during a cleaning?
Examinations should check for odor, check for tartar and loose or missing teeth, and missing or loose teeth should be charted.
What are 2 types of teeth abscesses?
Two types of tooth abscesses are dental fistula and oronasal fistula.
What are the characteristics of a dental fistula?
A dental fistula is a tooth abscess located under eye resulting in infection which drains into sinuses.
What are the characteristics of an oronasal fistula?
An oronasal fistula is an abscess located towards nose resulting in infection which drains into sinuses.
How is an extracted tooth charted?
An extracted tooth is marked with an X.
How is a missing tooth charted?
Missing teeth are circled on chart.
What are 5 types of hand instruments used in dentistry?
Hand instruments in dentistry include: explorer/probe, hand mirror, tartar removing forceps, scalers, and curettes.
What is the use of an explorer/probe?
An explorer/probe is used to measure recession and pocket depth.
What is the purpose of a hand mirror?
A hand mirror is used to visualize distal surface of teeth and to retract tongue and cheeks.
How is a scaler used?
A scaler is used to remove tartar and plaque from crown of tooth and should never be used under gum line.
What are the 3 forms of scalers?
Scaler forms include: claw, sickle, or hoe.
What are the 2 types of curettes?
The 2 types of curettes are gracey and universal.
How is a curette used?
A curette is used to remove tartar and plaque under gum line.
What are 2 important rules to remember when using ultrasonic scalers?
Ultrasonic scalers should never stay on tooth longer than 15 seconds or in pocket more than 5 seconds, and should not be used by tip.
What is the technique to using an ultrasonic scaler?
Hold handpiece in upright position, depress foot pedal, wait until water reaches end of scaler to set power and adjust water, hold like pen and apply gentle pressure to tooth, scale in sweeping motion, and move back and forth between teeth until all are scaled.
What is a polisher?
A polisher is a slow speed handpiece used to polish, smooth, and prep tooth surface.
What is the technique to using a polisher?
Fill prophy cup with paste, depress foot pedal, apply prophy cup to tooth, use gentle pressure and polish, rinse mouth and tongue.
What is the daily care of dental equipment?
Daily care of dental equipment includes: cleaning off debris with soap and water, sterilizing some parts with autoclave or cold sterilization, sharpening hand instruments, and wiping down machines, cords, and tubing with disinfectant.
What is the weekly care of dental equipment?
Weekly care includes: draining compressor of condensation, and ensuring handpieces are oiled.
What is the first step of prophylaxis?
The first step includes putting animal under general anesthesia and intubating, and positioning them with caudal portion elevated to allow fluids to run from mouth.
What is the last step of prophylaxis?
The last step of prophylaxis is to ensure dental chart and medical record is updated.
What are 5 specialty procedures that may or may not be available in some clinics?
Specialty procedures include: oral surgery, endodontics, pulp capping, dentures, and reconstructive surgery.
What is floating?
Floating is a procedure in equine work in which the continuously growing teeth must be filed.
Which teeth are most commonly filed?
Upper buccal and lower lingual teeth are most commonly filed.

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