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Geography Chpts 1-3


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tropical rainforest climate
hot and wet throughout the year

average temp- 80 F

thick vegetation
tropical savanna climate
dry season in winter and wet season in summer

further from the equater that trop. rain forest

high temps
desert climate
dry, sparse plant life

> 10 inches of rain

underground springs may support and oasis

hot during the day, cold at night
steppe climate
dry areas, often bordering deserts

10-20 inches of rain

bushes, short grasses
marine west coast climate
western coastlines between 30 and 60 degrees north and south

ocean winds produce cool summers and mild but damp winters

rainfall quite heavy in places

supports both evergreen and deciduous trees
mediterranean climate
areas that have weather patterns and vegetation like those near the Mediterranean Sea

coastal lands between latitudes 30 and 40 degrees

mild, rainy winters and hot, sunny summers

woody bushes, short trees
humid subtropical climate
generally found at mid-latitudes in the southeastern parts of continents.

a pattern of wind and high pressure related to nearby oceans causes high humidity.

rain falls throughout the year. thunderstorms in the summer

winters- short and mild

grasslands and forests
himid continental climate

the farther north one travels in hmid continental climate regions, the longer and more severe the snowy winters and the shorter and cooler the summers

located only in Northern Hemisphere
Mid- Latitude Climates
marine west coast
humid subtropical
humid continental
high latitdue climates
ice cap
subarctic climate
just south of the Arctic Circle

below freezing for half the year

winters are bitterly cold, and summers are short and cool

severe conditions limit the variety of plant life
tundra climate
bitterly cold winters with greatly reduced sunlight

summers have constant light but little heat

lie north of the subarctic zones in the N. Hemisphere
ice cap climate
below freezing = no vegetation

covered by snow and ice, sometimes mroe than 2 miles thick

the interior of Greenland has an ice-cap climate
highland climate
higher altitude = cooler air

near bases of mountains- deciduous and evergreen forests

higher up- meadows with small trees and shrubs
contour lines
on a map, lines that connect points of land at the same elevation
type of vegetation made up of dense forests of shrubs and short trees, common in Mediterranean climates
decidious trees
usually broadleaved such as oak and maple, that lose their leaves in autumn
a frequently windless area near the Equator

a bend in layers of rock, sometimes caused by plate movement

a crack or break in the eath's crust, usually caused by intense folding
great circle
the shortest distance between any two places on the earth's surface
facing away from the direction from which the wind is blowing
mixed forest
forestland with both evergreen and deciduous trees
small area in deser where water and vegetation are found, usually because of underground springs
permanently frozen layer of soil beneath the surface of the ground
an inland grassland area
prevailing wind
wind in a region that blows in a fairly constand directional pattern, such as the trade winds that blow toward the equator in low latitudes.
rain shadow
dry area found on the leeward side of a mountain range
differences in elevation, or height, of land and landforms
wide grassy plains of Eurasia, stretching from the Black Sea to the
Altai Mountains; also. similar semi-arid climate regions elsewhere.
Russian term for the vast subarctic forest, mainly evergreens, that begins where the tundra ends; also used for subarctic climate regions in general
elevation above which it is too cold for trees to grow
vast treeless plains in cold northern climates, characterized by permafrost and small, low plants such as mosses and shrubs
facing toward the direction the wind is blowing

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