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Pg 34,35 How Muscles Names are Derived (CS)

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2.0.7.34 List the 7 primary ways that the names assigned to muscles are derived.
1. Shape
2. Location
3. Attachment
4. Size
5. Orientation of fibers
6. Relative position
7. Function
2.1.7.34 Muscle names are often derived from the actual physical shape of the muscle itself or a defining physical characteristic such as the number of heads which it has. These names are derived by __________.
“By Shape”
1. rhomboideus
2. triangularis
3. triceps
4. biceps
2.1a.7.34 A muscle of the back, shaped like a rhomboid.
rhomboideus
2.1b.7.34 A muscle of the face which is triangular in shape.
triangularis
2.1c.7.34 A muscle with three (tri-) heads.
triceps
2.1d.7.34 A muscle with two (bi-) heads.
biceps
2.2.7.34 A muscle can be named for its actual location within the body relative to other body structures. These names are derived by __________.
“By Location”
2.2a.7.34 Chest muscle located within the pectoral girdle.
pectoralis
2.2b.7.34 Muscle located between ribs (literally means between ribs)
intercostal
2.2c.7.34 Located in the abdominal area.
abdominis
2.3.7.34 Muscle name derived by ___________. Many muscles are named for the bones to which they are attached. The muscle name can combine more than one name when more than one bone is involved.
“By Attachment”
2.3a.7.34 Attached to the zygoma (bone of the face.
zygomaticus
2.3b.7.34 Attached to the sternum, clavicle, and mastoid process of the skull.
sternocleidomastoid
2.4.7.34 The actual size of the muscle or its relative size to a similar muscle can be used in naming a muscle.
These names are derived by __________.
“By Size”
2.4a.7.34 Both of these terms mean larger or largest.
maximus or major
2.4b.7.34 Meaning smaller or smallest
minimus or minor
2.4c.7.34 Meaning long
longus
2.4d.7.34 Meaning short.
brevis
2.5.7.34 This is the direction that the individual fibers of a muscle extend. These muscle names are derived by __________.
“By Orientation of fibers”
2.5a.7.34 In a slanting or inclined direction
oblique
2.5b.7.34 Meaning straight.
rectus
2.5c.7.34 Meaning across or placed crosswise.
transverse
2.6.7.34 These delineations contain basic directional planes and are used on similar muscles to disignate a slightly different orientation. Often, a “medial” will have a corresponding“lateral” and an “internal” likewise an “external.” These names
By “Relative position”
2.6a.7.35 Something which is further from the midpoint or to the side.
lateral
2.6b.7.35 Something closer to the middle or the midline.
medial
2.6c.7.35 Situated or occurring within or on the inside.
internal
2.6d.7.35 Situated or occurring on the outside.
external
2.7.7.35 Muscles are responsible for movement. However, there are several different types of movements, and muscles are often classified according to the actual movement that they produce. These names are derived by ___________.
By “Function”
2.7a.7.35 Movement to draw toward a medial plane.
adductor
2.7b.7.35 General term for a muscle which extends a joint.
extensor
2.7c.7.35 General term for a muscle which flexes a joint.
flexor
2.7d.7.35 A muscle which elevates or lifts an organ or structure.
levator

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