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Scientific study of the world distribution of species
Darwins book
the origin of species
all individuals of the same species that are occypying a specified area
gene pool
all genotypes in a population
allele frequency
for a given gene locus, the relative abundances of each kind of allele among all the individuals of a population
genetic equilibrium
in theory, a state in which a population is not evolving
Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium
- large populations
- no mutations
- no immagration/ emigration
- no natural selection
gene flow
flow of alleles from one population to the next
3 types of natural selection
- directional selection
- stabilizing selection
- disrubtive selection
genetic drift
change in allele frequencies over the generations due to chance alone
founder effect
where a small number of individuals start a new population
Prezygotic Isolating Mechanisms
before fertilization
- Temporal- species mate at diff times
- Behavioral
- Spatial
- Mechanical
- Gametic
Postzygotic Isolating Mechanisms
after fertilization
- sterile
formation of a daughter species from a population or subpopulation of a parent species by way of microevolutionary processes
allopatric speciation
bounder seperating 2 species ( Isthmus of Panama and fish)
sympatric speciation
two species living in the same are but cannot reproduce (polyploidy)
having three or more of each type of chromosome
has a hybrid zone that often gives rise to new species
held with little change over long periods of time (sharks and alligators)
biological vs. morphological concept of species
individuals that look the same should be the same species

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