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Digestive System


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albumin is synchtesized in liver
to maintain fluid balance
mucosa secretes
mucus to lubricate food and to protect the lining of the digestive tract from the harsh chemicals of digestion
large intestine
5'long, consists of cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal
cecum location
travels up the right side of the abdomen, first portion of large intestines
produced by chief cells, activated into pepsin in the presence of hcl acid
pensino gen
precursor to the enzyme pepsin, which breakds down protein
lleocecal valve
separates the ileum from the cecum
stomach location
upper left quadrant of the abdomen
internal anal sphincter
at superior end of anal canal, under involuntary control
secreted by endocrine glands to stimulate the cells of exocrine gland sto make hcl acid and the pepsinogen
formed and drained from the liver via hepatic ducts
Digestive system
break food into smaller pieces, change food chemically into form the body can absorb and form that cells can use, absorb ntrients into the capillaries, eliminate the excess and waste products of digestion
10-12 feet long
2 ayered serous membrane that covers the abdominial organs and lines the abdominal cavity
colon functions
produces vitamin k in sufficinent amounts to meet daily need, secretes large amount s of mucous to lubricate the passage of fecal material
liver is the largest organ
in the body, is an exorine gland (secretes bile into the ducts),
anterior portio of palate
hard palate
pyloric sphincter
circular band of smooth mscle, which acts as a valve between the stomach and small intestines
small intestine functions
finish digestion, absorbs nutrients, passes residue to large intestines, most absorption takes place in teh small intestine
fatty acids
liver aids in breakdown of
digestive tract
ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid
lesser omentum
a peritoneal structure between the liver and the stomach
largest salivary gland located in front of the ears w/ ducts opening in the upper jaw, opposite the second molar
first 12 inches of small intestines, contains the ampulla of vater
intrinsic factor
produced by parietal cells, necessary for the absorption of vitamin b12
small intestines
some mucus is thick and alkaline and forms a protective coating for the stomach lining some muscus is thin and watery and mixes w/ food an d creates a fluid medium for chemical reaction
Liver filters blood
kupffer cells line the sinusoids and remove bacteria and damaged red blood cells from the body
elongated, flattened organ, has islets of langerhands
pernicious anemia
absence of vitamin b12
prepared in liver, which is the chief waste product of the breakdown of proteins into amino acids
smallest salivary gland located under the sides of the tongue, only secretes mucus and water, no digestive enzymes
breakdown fats into fatty acids
loose connective tissue w/ blood vessels, lymphatic vessels and nerves. Glands may be embedded in this layer
innermost lining consists of epithelium, loose connective tissue, and smooth muscle.
pancreas secretes
enzymes trypsin, amylase, lipase
semi fluid mixture of food particles and gastric juices
mositestnes/lubricates food, dissolves certain molecules so that food can be tasted
circular folds in thet mucosa and submucosa to increase the surface are for absorption
tongue manipulates
food in the mouth and is used in speech
Accessory organs of digestive system
tongue, teeth, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
Stores vitamins A, D, and B complex
stored in liver
exocrine functions of pancreas
secrete pancreatic enzymes and pancreatic fluid into the pancreatic duct that emptise into the duodenum at hte sphincter of oddi
salivary glands
parotid, submandibular, sublingual
saliva contains
water, mucus, and the enzyme amylase and ptyalin,
liver synthesizes
bile salts that facilitate fat digestion and the absorption of fat - soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K)
alimentary canal
digestive tract, 30 feet or 9 meters long in a continuous tube
made of skeletal muscle in many layers for maximum movement
lobules w/ sinusoids (venous channels)
functional units of the liver that carry blood from the periphery to the central vein of the lobule
are broken down in the liver if they are no longer useful to the body
passageway that transports food to the esophagus
-enter, intest
exocrine glands in teh walls of the duodenum
secrete digestive enzymes to further break down food
gall bladder secretes
bile, acts as an emulsifying agent, breaks down fat globules into smaller gat globules
during swallowing
soft palate and uvula move upward to direct food away from the nasal cavity to the oropharynx
posteriorly the soft palate ends in a projection
connective tissue
outermost layer of digestive tract, above diaphragm
Chyme presence
in duodenum stimulates intestinal secretions
hydrochloric acid
produced by the parietal cells to destroy incoming bacteria on swallowed food, convert pepsinogen into pepsin
external anal sphinter
at inferior end of anal canal, under voluntary control
small intestines divides into
duodenum, jejunum, ileum
bicarbonate rich fluid
secreted by pancrease to neutralize the incoming hcl acid from teh stomach
serous membrane
below diaphragm, peritoneum
relaxation of the pyloric sphincter
allows chyme to pass from teh stomach into the small intestine
majority takes places in stomach. layers of muscle turn and churn the food so all surfaces can come into contact w/ the gastric juices to enhance the breakdown of large particles of food into smaller particles of food
fibrinogen is synthesized in liver
for blood clotting along w/ prothrombin
amylase ptyalin
begins the chemical digestion of starches, which breakd down into polysaccharies into disaccharies
greater omentum
double fold of peritoneum in the anterior portion of the abdominal cavity extending from the cravture of the stomach,
roof of oral cavity, separates oral caivty from nasal cavity
enzyme prepares milk for further digestion, found in only in infants and children
longitudinal folds of the intnermost layer that permit expansion of the stomach
esophagus location
behind the trachea
collapsible muscular tube, 10 inches long, passageway between pharynx and stomach
continues from teh sigmoid to anal canal and has athick muscular layer
2 muscular layers
consist of circular muscle and longitudinal muscle, responsible for movements of the digestive tract
duodenum endocrine glands
secrete secretin and cholecystokinin to stimulate the pancrease and gallbladder to secrete their digestive juices
8 feet ong
anal canal
last 2-3 cm of digestive tract , opens outside at the anus
ileocecal valve
empties into the large intestines
gastric juices
gastrin, hcl acid, pepsinogne, pepsin, mucus, intrinsic factor, rennin, chyme
breakdown proteins into amino acids
large reddish brown organ, located in right hypo-chondriac and epigastric regions of the abdomen, just beneath the diaphgragm
islets of langerhands
endocrine functions in pancreas to form insulin an dglucagon in pancreas
tongue surface
is covered w/ papillae to provide friction and contain taste buds
bile, pear shaped sac attached to the liver, concentrates and store the bile until it is needed
ampulla of vater
site of the entrance of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct, in duodenum
Liver functions
produces & secretes bile, 800 - 1000 ml/day
Glucose is stored in the liver
in froms of glycogen and iron
cardiac sphincter
gastroesophageal sphincter, circular muscle controls the passage of food from the esphogus into the stomach, prevent backflow of stomach contents into the esophogus
1st part of the digestive tract, carbohydrate digestion begins here because amylase is present int he saliva
villus surrounds
a blood capillary network and a lmp capillary or lacteal, function in absorption of nutrients
anus, rectum
poserior layer of peritoneum attaches to the small intestines
gastroesophageal sphincter
cardiac sphincter
small intestines
2.5cm diameter, 20'long, extends from pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve
receives food from teh esophagus, divided into fundus, body, and pylorus
large intestine functions
absorption of water, vitamins K, B complex, electorlytes, and the elimination of feces
large amounts of adipose tissue or fat
between the folds of peritoneum
salivary gland that is the size of a walnut, located in front of the parotids
walls of digestive system organs
have four layers or tunics
finger like extensions of mucosa that project from plicae and further increases furface area
first portion of the large intestines, where the vermiform appendix is attached
Liver detoxifies
alcohol, some drugs, and other harmful chemicals
posterior portion
soft palate
breakdown carbohydrates into sugars
digestive tract
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small & large intestines,

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