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Nutrition 251 Exam 1


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the addition to a food of nutrients that wer lost during processing so aht the food will meet a specified answer
water and fiber remain(undigested material)
risk factor
a condition or behavior associated with an elevated frequency of a disease but not proved to be causal.
food group plans
diet-planning tools that sort foods into groups based on nutrient content and then specify that people shoudl eat certain amounts of foods from each
the avg. daily amount of a nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain a specified criterion
lowest continuing intake of a nutrient that will maintain a specified criterion of adequacy
nutrition assessment
a comprehensive analysis of a person's nutrition status taht uses health, socioeconomic, drug, and diet histories
wavelike muscular contractions of the GI tract that push its contents along
providing foods in proportion to each other and in proportion to the body's needs
healthy people
a national public health intiative under teh jurisdiction of the US department of Health and Human Services
organic, essential nutrients required in small amounts by the body for health
a backward flow
the average daily amount of a nutrient taht will maintain a specific biochemical or physiological fuction in half the healthy people of a given age and gender
Parts of the Circulatory System
Vascular System and lymphatic system
excess energy or nutrients
Parts of large intestine
colon, bacteria, stool or feces, anus
energy-yielding nutrients
the nutrients that break down to yield energy the body can use: Carbs, fat, protein
food substitutes
foods that are designed to replace other foods
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
the maximum daily amount of a nutrient taht appears safe for most healthy people and beyond which there is an increased risk of adverse health effects
imitation foods
foods that substitute for and resemble another food, but are nutritionally inferior to it with respect to vitamin,mineral, or protein content
energy density
a measure of the energy a food provides relative to the amount of food
empty k calorie foods
management of food energy intake
providing enough but not too much of a substance
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges(AMDR)
ranges of intake for the energy nutrients taht provide adequate energy and nutrients and reduce the risk of chronic disease
Swallowed food
esophageal sphincter
controls reflux of stomach contents
degrade some undigested material; some water and salts recycled-absorbed into blood stream
hormone released in the stomach
vitamins and minerals-small amounts
products derived from plants or animals that can be eaten to yield energy and nutrients
chronic diseases
diseases characterized by slow progression and long duration.
structure-function claims
statemetns that characterize the relationship between a nutrient or other substance in a food and its role in the body
any condition caused by excess or deficient food energy or nutrient intake or by an imbalance of nutrients
sphincter regulates exit of feces
a set of nutrient intake values for healthy people in the US and Canada Used for planning and assessing diets
Carbohydrases, proteases and lipases
digest food to absorbable units
processed foods
foods that have been treated to change their physical, chemical, microbiological, or sensory properties
the food and beverages a person eats and drinks
Role of Chewing
increase surface area, decrease food size
essential nutrients
nutrients a person must obtain from food because the body cannot make them for itself in sufficient quantity to meet physiological needs
health claims
statements that characterize the relationship btwn a nutrient or other substance in food and a disease or health related cause
the science of foods and the nutrients and other substances they contain, and of their actions within the body
hidden-as if under covers
protects stomach lining from acid and enzymes
eating a wide selection of foods within and among the major food groups
Estimated Energy Requirement(EER)
the average dietary energy intake that maintains energy balance and good health
pyloric sphincter
regulates slow release of acidic chyme into small intestine
stores and concentrates bile(emulsifies fat) made by liver
in chemistry, a substance or molecule containing carbon-carbon bonds or carbon-hydrogen bonds
Daily Values(DV)
refernce values developed by the FDA specifically for use on food labels
not containing carbon or pertaining to living things
slows secretion of gastric juices and GI motility
carbs, fat, protien body needs large amounts
the addition to a food of nutrients that were either not originally present or present in insignificant amounts
Microvilli and villi
absorb nutrients-located on the lining of the small intestine
out in the open and easy to observe
nutrient claims
statements that characterize the quantity of a nutrient
seconday deficiency
a nutrient deficiency caused by something other than an inadequate intake such as a disease conditoin or drug interaction
primary deficiency
a nutrient deficiency caused by inadequate dietary intake of a nutrient
Role of Mouth and Saliva
lubrication and salivary amylase- begins carb. digestion
the process by wich food is broken down into absorbable units
inorganic elements
the unit of measure expressing a substance's acidity or alkalinity.
the semiliquid mass of partly digested food expelled by the stomach into the duodenum
deficient energy or nutrients
nutritional genomics
the science of how nutrients affect the activities of genes
the process by which the coarse parts of a food are removed
slows secretion of gastric juices and GI motility
indespensable nutrients
essential nutrients
nutrient density
a measure of the nutrients a food provides relative to the energy it provides. the more nutrients and the fewer kcalories, the higher nutrient density.
stool or feces
stored in rectum until released from body
plants of the bean and pea fam. with seeds taht are rich in protein copared with otehr plant derived foods
GI tract
the digestive tract. The principal organs are the stomach and intestine
the full complement of genetic material in the chromosomes of a cell
a compound that facilitates chemical reactions without itself being changed in the process
relating to measurement of the physical characteristics of the body, such as height and weight
functional foods
foods that contain physiologically active compounds that provide health benefits beyond their nutrient contributions
nonnutrient compounds found in plant-derived foods that have biological activity in the body
lymphatic system
large fats and fat-soluble vitamins; lymph vessels around intestines(lacteals) collect to larger vessel taht enters blood stream near heart
providing all the essential nutrients, fiber, and energy in amounts sufficient to maintain health
textured vegetable protein
process soybeanprotein used in vegetarian products such as soy burgers
kcalorie control
management of food energy intake
the amount of a nutrient below which almost all healthy people can be expected to experience deficiency symptoms
exchange lists
diet planning tools that organize foods byy their proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein. Foods on any single list can be used interchangeably
protease-digests proteins
a portion; with respect to food, the amount swallowed at one time
Parts of small intestine
duodenum,jejunum, ileum
subclinical deficiency
a deficiency in the early stages, before the outward signs have appeared
descretionary k calorie allowance
the kcalories remaining in a person's energy allowance after consuming enough nutrient-dense foods to meet all nutrient needs for a day
units by which energy is measured. (kilocalories)
the average daily amount of a nutrient considered adequate to meet the know nutrient needs of practically all healthy people
releases bicarbonate to neutralize chyme and enzymes to digest carbohydrate protein and fat
Types of absorbtion
simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport
vascular system
carbs, protein, small lipids, water-soluble vitamins and minerals
the uptake of nutrients by the cells of the small intestine for transport ito either the blood or the lymph
whole grain
a grain milled in its entirety, not refined
Role of Esophagus
propel bolus through peristalsis
a periodic squeezing or partitioning of the intestine at intervals along its length by its circular muscles

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