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Marine Final Vocab

Terms

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plankton
The most minute and primitive creatures of the food chain. They are tiny organisms that drift through the layers of the ocean and serve as food for many small aquatic species. base of the food chain.
odontocete
Refers to the toothed whales, such as belugas, narwhals, dolphins, sperm and killer whales
chromatophores
pigment-containing and light-reflecting cells found in amphibians, fish, reptiles, crustaceans
operculum
A hard, bony plate which covers the gills.
bioaccumulation
The process whereby pollutants are taken up, retained and concentrated in the cells of plants and animals. trophic levels and toxins combined.
guyots
A seamount, the top of which has been flattened by weathering, wave action, or stream erosion.
zooplankton
The small animals that drift in the surface waters of the ocean.
agnatha
superclass of eel-shaped chordates lacking jaws and pelvic fins: lampreys; hagfishes; some extinct forms
HAB
harmful algal bloom
upwelling
The movement of nutrient rich waters from the bottom of the ocean to the surface.
phytoplankton
very small plant like plankton, algae
seamount
an isolated mountain situated on the sea floor
anal fin
fin on underside of a fish posterior to the anus
trenches
A deep narrow depression in the ocean floor, often thousands of meters deep. usually form near the edge of a continent
chemosynthesis
The use of chemical energy rather than sunlight as the energy source for the production of organic compounds from inorganic sources.
myoglobin
protein found in muscles that carries oxygen
algal bloom
A rapid increase in the numbers of algae, usually caused by a change in the flow, light, temperature or nutrient levels of the water in which it lives.
hydrothermal vents
a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues
dorsal fins
fin on back of oceanic animals that can be tall and triangular
bycatch
Unwanted fish or other animals caught in fishing nets by accident. is usually thrown back dead or dying.
hemoglobin
protein found in blood cells that carries oxygen
ampullae de lorenzini
special sensing organs, forming a network of jelly-filled canals in cartilaginous fishes that detect electromagnetic fields
myomeres
each muscle block along either side of spine in vertebrates. fish fillet
baleen
Long, flat plates made of fingernail-like material called keratin that hang from a baleen whale's mouth in place of teeth.
principle of constant proportions
proportion of ions to salinity is always the same
trieste
Swiss-designed deep-diving research bathyscaphe ("deep boat") with a crew of two people, which reached a record-breaking depth of about 10,900 metres (35,761 ft), in the deepest part of any ocean on Earth, the Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench, in 1960
plate tectonics
The theory that the earth's surface is divided into a few large, thick plates that are continually moving.
density
mass/volume
lateral line
a visible line along the side of a fish consisting in a series of sensory organ that sense pressure and vibration. helps fish school since they can sense movemements of other fish
osteichthyes
a class of fish having a skeleton composed of bone in addition to cartilage
luciferase
The enzyme that catalyses the oxidation of luciferin, a reaction that produces bioluminescence.
mysticete
Refers to the group of toothless, baleen whales, including gray whales, right whales and rorquals.
tragedy of the commons
The idea that where there is no clear ownership of rights to a natural resource, the users of the resource are likely to overexploit it
sonar
an acronym for SOund, NAvigation and Ranging, the technology which makes "depthfinders" or "fishfinders" possible;
mariana trench
the deepest part of the world's oceans, and the deepest location on the surface of the Earth's crust. It has a maximum depth of about 10.9 km
photophores
light producing organs in certain fish
luciferin
a pigment of bioluminescent organisms that emits light while being oxidized chem phys
photic zone
The layer of the ocean that is penetrated by sunlight; extends to a depth of about 200 meters.
chondrichtyes
A class of vertebrates including all cartilaginous fishes (sharks, rays, skates, and chimaeras).
air bladder
An internal organ that fish use to control their buoyancy, allowing them to maintain or change depth by changing their density. full of oil in deep sea denizens
countercurrent blood flow
blood flows in two different direction, helps maintain heat
countershading
protective coloration in which some parts that are normally in shadow are light and those exposed to light are dark. dark back, light belly.
otolith
ear bone that can be used to calculate age
pelagic
Refers to fish and animals that live in the open sea, away from the sea bottom
epipelagic zone
The lighted, open ocean layer from the surface to about 300 meters deep.
gyre
a circular oceanic surface current
pectoral fins
pair of fins located on either side behind a fishes head, helps control the direction of fish
ichthyology
The branch of zoology that deals with fishes - their classification, structure, habits, and live history.
continental shelf
200 nautical miles or to the edge of the continental margin,A region of relatively shallow water surrounding each of the continents
archimede's principle
the weight of the water displaced is equal to the weight of the boat, boat is buoyed up by this force
cloaca
hole at the end of the digestive tract in which both excrements and genital products excrete from
caudal fin
fin at the posterior extremity of a fish's body, typically continues into tail

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