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Science IA Final: continued again


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Aerobic Bacteria:
uses oxygen.
no oxygen needed.
Are fungi auto or heto?
Cell Membrane of Bacteria:
found inside of cell wall of bacteria, transports materials in/out of the cell.
Cell tissue:
group of similar cells all doing the same thing.
Cell Wall of Bacteria:
protective layer made of proteins and fats. gram + and gram - have different cell walls: + purple, -red.
Cell Wall:
(plants only) rigid covering of a plant cell, made of cellulose. pores allow ions and molecules to pass.
only become active when the cell reproduces. helps the cell split into 2 new cells. form fibers that pull chromosomes apart.
synthesize and store pigments such as orange carotens.
no walls separating the cells.
Cytoplasm of Bacteria:
gelly-like mass of chemicals inside of cell such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and water. contains chromosomes.
Endoplasmic Reticulum:
a network of tubes scattered throughout the cytoplasm. place for the constructions (synthesis) of the proteins. lined with ribosomes.
both aerobic and anaerobic.
baterial rods and spirilla can move by this organelle. shaped like a tail or whip.
found on bacilli and cocci, a sticky layer made of sugars and proteins.
Golgi Apparatus:
special part of E.R. found in cells that secrete enzymes or hormones. function- to package the completed enzyme and deliver it.
How do most pacteria reproduce?
binary fission.
How fast do bacteria reproduce?
fast: one bacterial cell can produce 7,000,000 cells in 7 hours.
How many species of fungi are there?
80,000 species.
vacuoles that contain digestive enzymes- can break down particles of protein (chunks of bacteria) into amino acids. can also destroy the cell.
powerhouse of the cell. oval-shaped protein structure composed of 2 membranes. outer, smooth membrane and an inner folded membrane called Christae. Glucose molecules are broken down here by enzymes to make energy.
Organ System:
group of organs functioning to allow the system to do its job. (ex. digestive system)
group of different tissues working together to allow the organ to do its job (ex. skin, muscle, nervous, vascular).
all organ systems working together in balance to enable the organism to reproduce.
hairlike structure that transfers genetic material (DNA or RNA).
Plasma Membrane:
(cell membrane) covers the cell, gives its shape, and permits the movement of materials.
protozoa, algae.
made of protein. half-sphere shaped structures attached to the surface of the E.R.- the specific sites of protein synthesis.
live on dead organic material: helpful in the breakdown of dead organisms.
cells of fungi are separated by walls, but the cytoplasm mixes between cells.
produced by gram +. forms when conditions are hostile, contain little water (heat resistant), protets the cell until conditions return, most resistant form of life.
What are autotrophs?
produce their own food.
What are bacteria called if they like cold temps. of 0-20 C?
What are bacteria called if they like hot temps of 40-90 C?
What are bacteria called if they like middle temps. of 20-40 C?
WHat are bacteria measured in?
micrometers- one millionth of a meter.
What are fungi?
eukaryotic microorganisms.
What are heterotrophs?
take in food?
What are some examples of coccus?
single, dipplococcus (pairs), tetrad (group of four), Sarcina (8), staphylococcus (grape), streptococcus (chain of them).
What are some exaoples of spiral shaped bacteria?
spiral, spirochete, virbrio.
What are the different systems?
nervous, digestive, integumentary, circulatory, skeletal, muscular, lymphatic, endocrine, excretory, respiratory, reproductive.
What are the steps to binary fission?
1. cell elongates and DNA replicates. 2. cell wall and membrane invaginates. 3. crosswall forms, separates DNA 4. cells separate
What are the three shapes of bacteria?
bacillus (rod-shaped), coccus (sphere-shaped), and Spiral (chain).
What do fungi lack?
What does flagella mean in latin?
What is autolysis?
destruction of the cell through lysosomes.
What is pili used for?
used to stuck to tissues for the cause of disease.
What is the size of a flagella?
10-20 micrometers.
What is the thick layer of a glycocalx like?
a capsule that serves as a protective coat.
What kind of food do bacteria need?
organic: carbohydrates (monosacc., disacc.), proteins (blood, skin, organs), concentrations of water, very little lipids.
What temps do most bacteria like?
20-40: mesophiles.

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