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digestive system and digestion - chapter 10.1 grade 7


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-The action of eating starts a process that turns food into energy for your tissues and cells.
Path of Digestion
--Begins in the mouth
--Down the esophagus
--Into the stomach
--Through the Small Intestine
--Through the Large Intestine
What happens to material that cannot be used in the body.
--It continues on into the large intestine and is eliminated
--Having teeth makes it possible to eat a greater variety of food.

-Teeth helps break food into smaller pieces
-Mechinal breakdown in the mouth
--Happens when food is chewed by your teeth and your tongue
Chemical breakdown of food in your mouth
--Saliva in your mouth begins to change the food chemically.
Where is saliva made?
--By the glands located beneath your tongue
How does saliva help digest food?
--Helps you chew and makes it easier for the chewed food to slide down your throat.

--Saliva also contains enzymes which are proteins that help speed up the chemical breakdown process.
How do enzymes work in digestion?
--The enzymes act like scissors and cut apart food molecules to make them smaller.
The enzymes in saliva breakdown what specific kind of food?
--Starches such as bread, potatoes, and pasta.
How does the tongue aid in the process of digestion?
-- The tongue is a very strong muscle

--As you swallow, your tongue pushes the food down your throat.
What happens when food arrives in your mouth until it reaches your esophagus?
--Chewing, grinding action of the teeth breaks food down into particles

--Mucus and enzymes in saliva lubricate and continue the chemical breakdown process.

-Tongue gives food a head start down the esophagus.
How does the esophagus move food along to the stomach?
--After swallowing, waves of muscle contractions in your esophagus help push the food down your throat..

-Gravity helps pull the food down your throat
Can the esophagus move food without gravity?
--Yes, the muscles in the esophagus are strong enough to push the food along.

-- You can even swallow food upside down.
Where does the food go after the esophagus?
-to the stomach
What does the inside of the stomach look like?
--the stomach has wrinkled lining and muscular walls
How does the stomach physically breakdown the food?
--the stomach contracts and begins to churn the food.
How do enzymes work in the stomach?
-- continues the digestion of starches

--digestion of proteins begins in the stomach
How much can a stomach of a newborn hold?
--About 60 ml or 2 ozs
How much can a stomach of an average adult hold?
--About 1.5 liter
Where does the food go after it leaves the stomach?
-- It goes to the top part of the intestine called the duodenum
In the small intestine, digestive juices from the ______________ and the ______ ______ are mixed with the food.
-the pancreas and the gall bladder
What part of digestions is completed in the small intestine?
--the digestion of starches, proteins, and fats is completed in the small intestine
What lines the inside wall of the small intestine?
-- Small fingerlike projections called villi
What do villi contain?
-blood vessels and increase the surface area of the small intestine.
Why does the small intestine need a large surface area?
--it needs a large surface area so that it can absorb sufficient amounts of nutrients for your cells.
In what form is the food when it enters the small intestine?
-- it is a liquid mixture of the solid foods that you put into your mouth.
How are nutrients absorbed?
--the nutrients pass directly through the wall of the intestine and into the blood stream?
Where does the food go when it leave the small intestine?
-- to the large intestine
What happens to the food waste in the large intestine?
--the blood vessels in the large intestine absorb the excess water from the food waste
What helps lubricate the food wasted in the large intestine?
--mucus is secreted to lubricate
What is the waste that exits the body when the process of digestion of complete?
How many organs are in the digestive system?
--10 organs
How many organs of the digestive system does the food actually travel through?
-- 6 organs
How many of the digestive organs are helper?
-there are 4 helper organs
How long does food stay in the mouth?
--Mouth less than 1 minute
How long does food stay in the esophagus?
--less than 3 seconds
How long does food stay in the pharnyx?
--less than 10 sec.
How long does food stay in the stomach?
--3-5 hours
How long does food stay in the small intestine?
--3-10 hours
How long does food stay in the large intestine?
--18-24 hours
What are the 4 helper organs?
-Gall Bladder
How long does total digestion take?
----A total of 24 to 48 hours
How many amino acids does the body need?
20 aminoacids are needed
How many amino acids can the body make?
--it can make 12 of the 20 amino acids that it needs
Why is the food pyramid at the top and fat at the bottom?
-The items at the top you do not need and the items toward the bottom have greater number of servings.
What 4 types of taste buds do you have on your tongue?



What are three functions of the teeth?


What is the pharnyx?
-the ares formed by the nasopharynx--from the nose

-- and oropharynx from the mouth

What is the function of the pharynx?
--passageway for both respiratory and digestive system
How long is the esophagus?
25 cm long
What is the esophagus?
-- passageway from pharynx to stomach with waves of contracting muscles lined with mucus
What organ is a collisible muscular bag?
--the stomach
What do the gastric pits of the stomach do?
the produce gastric juices which contain

--mucus for protection of lining

--pepsin an enzyme which acts on proteins

--hydrochloric acid
How long is the small intestine?
6 meters long
What is the size of the diameter of the small intestine?
-- 2 1/2 cm in diameter
What are the three sections of the small intestine?


What is the function of the duodenum?
-receives secretions from liver and pancreas
What portion(s) of the small intestines are where absorption take place?
-absorption takes place in the jejeum and the ileum by the villi
Where do the nutrients go once they are absorbed by the villi in the small intestine?
--they go into the blood stream
What are proteins broken down into as food passes through the small intestine?
-they are broken down into amino acids
What are complex sugars broken down into as food passes through the small intestine?
-complex sugars are broken down into simple sugars
What are fats broken down into as food passes through the small intestine?
-fats are broken doewn into fatty acids and glycerol
What is the diameter of the large intestine?
--6-7 cm
How long is the large intestine?
-1 to 1 1/2 feet long
What is the shape of the large intestine?
-an upside down u
What is the lowest portion of the large intestine?
-the rectum
The large intestine ends with a sphincter muscle called a _______.
the anus
What is reabsorbed in the large intestine?


What is feces make up of?
-dead bacteria



-dead cells

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