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Ascending colon
travels upward from the cecum to the undersurface of the liver. Ascending means moving upward
Transverse colon
passess horizontally from right to left toward the spleen. Transverse means moving across
Descending colon
travels down the left side of the abdominal cavity to the sigmoid colon. Descending means moving downward.
Sigmoid colon
S-shaped structure tha tcontinues from the descending colon above and joins with the recturm below.
w/c is the last division of the large intestine ends at the anus
1st portion of the small intestine, extends from the pylorus to the jejunum.

the duodenum is where digestive fluids from the pancreas and liver are received
the middle portion of the small intesting extends from the duodenum to the ileum. It secretes large amounts of digestive enzymes.
the last & longest portion of the small intestine, extends from the jejunum to the cecum of the large intestine.. main function is the absorption of nutrients.
vermiform appendix commonly called appendix

hangs from the lower portion of th cecum
Digestive System
aka alimentary canal (aliment means to nourish and -ary means pertaining to.

-responsible for intake & digestion of food

-the absorption of nutrients from the digested food

-the elimination of solid waste products
Respiratory System
-brings oxygen rich air into the body for delivery to the blood cells. The blood delivers oxygen to the body tissues

-expel waste products (carbond dioxide and some water waste) returned to the lungs by the blood.
aka "windpipe"
Transverse Plane
divide body upper (superior) & lower (inferior) portion

the transverse plane can be at the waist level or at any other level acreoos the body
Midsagittal plane
-aka midline
-divide into equal Left & Right halves or sections
divide into the unequal Right and Left sections
Coronal Plane
-divides into anterior and posterior portions head or crown

-aka frontal plane
Peritoneal Cavity
aka "abdominal cavity"
-Dorsal cavity
-Ventral cavity
-Cranial cavity
-Spinal cavity
-Thoracic "
-Abdominal cavity
-Pelvic cavity
Abdomino pelvic cavity
-abdominal and pelvic cavity
Retroperitoneal Cavity
located behind the abdominal cavity

kidney are the only structure found in the structure (retro-means behind, periton means peritoneum and -eal mean pertaining to
*-palms upward or forward
-patient laying in the back
*-palms downward or backward
-patient laying in th stomach face down
lithotomy position
the patient is supine with the feet and legs raised supported in stirrups or feet in stirrups
movement away from the body
movement towards the body
Oral - 3 min., 97-98, 98.6 Aver
Axillary-10 min,96-98, 97.6
Rectal-5 min., 98-100, 99.6
>Apical (apex of heart)=correct spot for infants/youths

>Radial-correct spot for adults

>infants 120-140 BPM
>adults 60-100 BPM
20/20 distance chard is away from patients
feeling w/your finger

feel for texture, size, consistency and location of certain body parts
tapping w/finger or instrument
procedure to determine the density of a body area that uses the sound
listening w/a stethescope
Medical etiquette
ethics, courtesy and conducts, customary in the medical profession
invasion of privary
unauthorized disclosure of information on a patient or a 3rd party
court order or "writ" to appear in court for testimony
peer review
any panel formed of peers in a common profession to hear about ethical complaints
admissions reviews
peer review that looks at the necessity of dmission of a patient
failure to do something a reasonable person would do or doing something a reasonable person would not do
study of the use prepation, handling, storage and actions of drugs
Schedule I
>Physical & Mental - highly addicting
>no permitted use
>Dr cant prescribed
>ex. heroin, marijuana, hashish aka opium
Schedule II
>phycial & mental - highly addicting

>usage with rectrict triplicate RX (prescription) 1)pt, 2)MD, 3)DEA

ex. cocaine, doein
Schedule III
>"moderate impact" for physical dependence and hight potential psycological depencence having accepted medical use
Schedule IV
>"mild" or "minor" physical or psychological dependence
Schedule V
>"limited" potential
>may contain normal amt of narcotic
ex. robittussion
Theraputic medicines
used to treat an illness or disease

ex. nyquil, antacid
used to diagnose

ex: glucose drink, barium
prevents illness

ex: vitamins, vaccination,birth control pills
Chemical Name
*-precise name of chemcial composition ex: NaCl

-writing the name in scientifice name
Generic Name
*-shorter version of chemical name ex:Salt
Brand Name
*trade or official name or name of legal owner

ex: advil
(by preparation)
a. tablet -powdered med compressed into a disk

b. capsule - med surrounded in a gelatin shell
1. emulsion
med mixed w/oil

ex: eardrop med
2. syrup
med that is sweetened and flavored to disguise taste for children
3. solution
med dissolve in a liquid. Completely dissolve
4. Suspension
med floating in a liquid that must be mixed
5. Spray
a mist of medication tht pumped plastic container
6. Aerosol
>pressurized dose of medication
>metal cans container
a. sublingual
b. buccal
c. transdermal
a. med dissolves under tonge
b. med dissolves inside check of
c. medication patches
Parts of Syringe
1. Plunger 6. Hilt
2. Flange 7. Shaft
3. Barrel 8. Bevel
4. Tip 9. Point
5. Hub 10. Lumen
Reference # to gauge
large # the smaller lumen

smaller # the smaller lumen
Hypodermic Syringes
-penetrates or pierce skin
-used for SC and IM
-calibrated in CC(cubic centimeter)
TB (Tiberculine)Syringes
-used for allergy shots and TB test
-calibrated in CC
Insulin Syringes
-used to administer insulin
-calibrated in units (u)
expiration date
date on bottle tht ensure potency
delivery (oral,IM,SC)
amout of medication
frequency (how often are you going to take it)
2 Groups of Measurement
Ready Mixed & Reconstitution
Ready Mix
a. cartridge-like a bullet in a gun
1.contains 1 dose of med
2.barrel and needle go in
holder that disposed of
after use

b. ampule= glass container
1. contains 1 dose of

c. Vial=plastic or glss container w/rubber stopper

1.contains multiple dosage of medicine
powdered meds taht must be mixed w/a liquid before injecting
Medication RULES
1. check med 3x the shelf
b.palming drawing med
c.back to shelf
2. aspirate to make sure no

3. prep site from center to periphery
1. UA
a. specific gravity weight of were compared to distilled water

urinometer, miscus (downward curvature of a liquid where results are read)
2. Ultrasound
coupling agent - gel used for ultrasound applied at room temperature
3. X-ray
cholecystogram=xray of gallbladder
4. Centesis
aspiration of fluid
needle aspiration of amniotic fluid for genetic testing
needle aspiration of fluid in the joint
5. Cultures
stored in the incubator, lid down
6. Oxygen (Tank)
has 2 dials
%of Oxygen and liter per minute
7. Tubing
gavage=to give food or liquid
via in tube

lavage=washing out stomach or
cavity ex. ear
Hematocrit (Hct)
ratio of volume of packed RBC's
in a whole blood specimen expressed in %

%of plasma
% of cells
counting chamber for RBC's
Medical asepsis
free of microorganisms, germs and infection
Universal precautions
approach to infection control
How to keep medical asepsis
1. handwashing=#1 way to prevent
spread of infection

2. PPD(Personal ProtectionDevice
a)gloves b)goggles c)lab jacket

4.biohazard bags colored-red orange for all bloody or soiled items
5.sharps container-puncture proof
-fever,pain,vomiting,diarrhrea, pus.

1st sign of infection:
inflammation=body's natural reaction to trauma,or foreign body,redness,swelling,pain
Optimum Environment for Microorganism growth
2.darkness-mo sensitive to light ex. basement
3.moisture-ex. athlets foot
a. aerobic-mo need oxygen to
grow & multiply
b. anaerobic-mo need free
environment to grow

5. nutrition or food source
a)organic food-plant or
animal based

b)inorganic food-minerals
or chemicals

6. PH (Potential Hydrogen)=
mo are sensitive to extreme
acid and alkaline. Prefer
PH between 5.0-7.4
Cycle of Infections
1) Reservoir Host/Carrier
a)reservoir host=infected
b)carrier=infected person
no sympthoms

2) Port of Exit: nose, mouth

3) Means of Transmission:
Direct=blood to blood
sexual contact
Indirect=everything else

4) Port of Entry=mouth,nose
urinary system,repro-
ductive system or
everything else

5) Susceptible Host: person
who easily get sick due
to: stress, poor nutri-
tion, poor hygiene,
poor health then
become reservoir host
lighted instrument to exam ears
exam eyes
nasal speculum
use to look in the nostrils
use to pull apart
percussion hammer
tests reflexes
to control blood flow (clamps)
anything used for grabbing
needle holder
to hold suture
Automatic External Defibrillator
shock heart bact to normal rythym
1)Benign-good cancer doesn't spread

2)Malignant-bad cancer spreading cancer
aka Soar or Lesion
1)Peptic Ulcer-stomach lesion
2)Decubital Ulcer-"bed soar"
(patient pressure bed soar at
paralysis, loss of muscle movement and sensation
paralysis from waist down or both legs paralized
1/2 of body paralized
paralysis from neck down or paralysis of all 4 extremities
blood in urine
ketones in urine
glucose in urine
protein in urine
Lack of Vit C
Lack of Vit D
rickets (osteomalacia-softening of the bones)

lack of calcium
Lack of Vit B (B6)
cheilitis=inflammation of the lips

blepharities=inflammation of the eyelids
inflammation of peritoneum
1) menarche
1st menstrual period
2) menopause
cecession of menstrual cycle
3) fallopian tubes
where fertilization occurs
4) implantation
occurs in uterus
5) ectopic
implantation of egg outside normal area (uterus)
pulmonary edema
swelling in the lungs
air in pleural space
pleural effusion
fluid in the pleural space
low glucose in the blood
high glucose in the blood
1st Degree Burn
red,painful,peels off(epedermis)
ex:sunburn most common

Rx:soak in cold water
dry dressing
no oil based lotion
2nd Degree Burn
both epedermis & dermis

Rx: same as 1st degree
3rd Degree Burn
full thickness (epedermis,dermis,subcutaneous)
charred, burnt, no pain, cover, no water

call 911 reason to voer to prevent MO make sure to use cloth tht will not leave any remnant (dont use towel)
Closed Wounds
1. Contusion
1. bruise
Open Wounds

1. abrasion
Open Wounds

1. puncture
1. narrow & deep opening
ex. gun shot wound
Open Wounds

2. laceration
2.irrigular cut that forms a scar
Open Wounds

3. incision
3. precise surgical cut
Simple or Closed Fx
broken bone w/out an open wound
Compound or Open Fx
broken bone w/an open wound and bleeding
Greenstick Fx
bone broken on one side and bent on the other

common in children
Pathologic Fx
broken bone due to weakness caused by disease
Fiberglass Casts
used because they dry quickly
subscriber, insured, policy holder
Insurance Company
Carrier, Rider, Insurer
Group Ins
group of people who purchase 1 policy with standard benefits employee must subscribe or join the group (not automatic)
Health Care Provider
lump sum of money to activate a policy
agreement, genefits, coverage in the form of medical treatment
is in the form of medical treatment from M.D.
Assignment of benefits
instructions for Ins. Co. of who and where to make payments for services
request for benefits
aids in establishing, calculates risk factors, and calculates premium fees for ins.
coverage for services rendered (money)
Coordiantion of Benefits
prevents duplication of benefits by 2 insurance companies
Primary Ins.
1st insurance obligated to pay for benefits until funds run out
Maybe a yearly allowed amount of money or a lifetime amount
ex. breast cancer or mental illness
Secondary Ins.
picks up the remainder of costs not covered by the primary ins.
unnatural hazards that may be excluded from the insurance policy. ex. suicide,unnatural diseases like HIV and CA, Mother nature
Catastrophic (aka "Major Medical" Ins.)
an add on policy to add additional coverage for serious illnesses like CA or dialysis

high ins premium for serious injuries
benefits in the form of a lump sum payment opposed to treatment

use this for people who travel

ex. $2000 for loss of eye
$200 per day for inpatient
hospital stays
certain illness that are kept off a policy
Effective date
date the policy become effective
qualified to receive ins. coverage
anything that has happened or been diagnosed 6 mos. prior to effective date that ins. co. will not cover

ex. pregnancy
maybe required by the ins. co. before benefits can be paid

ex. specialist referrals, certain prescriptions, surgerires, treatments
Grace Period
time when ins policy has not begun where no benefits are payable
Health Management/Managed Care
ins given under an agreement to control expenses to prevent abuse of ins. billing
PCP Primary Care Physician "gate keeper"
M.D. in the network who screens need for medical services

If he can't help PCP can:
admit Pt. to hospital
Refer Pt. to specialist in the network (must be pre-authorized with ins. co.)
incentive payment made to M.D for join the PCP; lump sum payment mde to M.D. for number of patients seen in a given period of time
HMO (Health Maintenance Organization)
group of M.D.'s or PCPs in a network
PPO (Preferred Provider Organization)
able to bypass the PCP; may see specialist in network for co-pay and may see notn-network M.D> but must pay more money
POS (Point of Service)
M.D. and Ins. Co. are one organization

ex. Kaiser
payment Pt. must pay before benefits begin
fixed amount paid for each benefit
fixed % paid for each benefit
IPA (Independent Providers Association)
handles ins. claims or money managment for
works for the ins. co. and the insured to assist in processing claims
Usual Customary and Reasonable
Time Limit
amount of time allowed a claim to be filed with the ins. for payment

Dental Claims-90 days
Medical Claims 6 months

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