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Modern East Asian History


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Rise of the CCP
-Strong base in North China, esp. with local peasants
-Gained favor with land reform, rules of discipline, and party persuasion
-Speak Bitterness--turn peasant fear into political motivation, incite hate of landlords
-once in power, goals were increased agricultural production (for industry) and stopping inflation
Fall of the KMT
-Distrusted locals because they collaborated with Japanese
-Corruption by KMT officials
-Treated locals as traitors, alienated them
-Overall, helped lead to their downfall
Neighborhood Committees
-400-500 families under the party in control of policing, fire control, explaining party doctrine, etc.
-means of giving the party oversight into everyone's lives
Thought Reform
-Mao feared intellectuals
-reeducation campaign targeted at intellectuals to teach them party ideals
-cleansing process to make them worthy of Mao
Permanent Revolution
-Mao thought gradual development would lead to the end of the revolution and free market capitalism
-by making ideology at the focus, it would keep the revolution from stopping
Great Leap Forward
-Millions of people working hard would lead to rapid growth
-Manpower is China's greatest resource
-Peasants have two good qualities: ignorant and desperate
-Materials taken from useful projects to fuel backyard steel production--waste leads to decrease in productivity
-20-30 million people die
-leads to discontent of cadres who tended to themselves in desperation
People's Communes
-30,000 people each
-based on hours worked; led to decrease in productivity
-became self sufficient-no bureaucratic oversite
-present false productivity numbers:prevents gov't from enacting reforms
Peng Dehuai
-interviewed peasants about actual life
-showed Mao, who saw it as an attack
-publicized it and used as means to develop a "with or against me" attitude
-threatened the CCP and PLA
-authorities eventually caved
Liu Shaoqi
-named head of state
-believed in gradual, planned economic development
-seized by Red Guard during Cultural Revolution for being a capitalist
Cultural Revolution
-Mao sees the party as corrupt and decides to purge it
-turns to the masses (the Red Guard)
-PLA becomes a political player
-PLA publishes "Quotations of Mao"
Zhou Enlai
-Seen as a balance to Mao
-Died in Mao's doghouse but the people loved him
-Gathering in Tiananmnen Square to commemmorate his passing become violent
-Deng Xiaoping is blamed and demoted
Gang of Four
-Mao's wife and three other close friends
-Blamed for the excesses of the Cultural Revolution
Hua Guofeng
-Named party leader after Mao as he is not mired in political experience/corruption
-Deng Xiaoping is running things behind the scenes
Deng Xiaoping
-pragmatist: economic development is first priority, not ideology
-FOUR MODERNIZATIONS: agriculture, industry, defense, and science
-economic reform included privitization: increased productivity
-abandoned communes: who would take over their roles
-privitization led to unemployment, increased taxes by local cadres, corruption
-slimmed down but modernized military
Fifth Modernization
-Wei Jingsheng posted it on the Democracy Wall
-democracy is a prerequisite to modernization
-led to his arrest and the closure of the wall
Household Responsibility
-Houses must meet a quota to give to the government
-excesses may be used for food, can be sold to the government, or sold on the free market
-people move to cities and buy food to meet quota
-agricultural shortage
-breakdown of infrastructure: w/o communes, who takes over healthcare, etc.
Work Unit System
-Industries are work units
-Gov't pays industries so they don't fail--don't want civil unrest
-failure would mean unemployment because worker mobility was not available
Iron Rice Bowl
-If you are loyal to the state, it will garuntee you employment regardless of how much or how hard you work
Special Economic Zones
-Incentivized foreign investment
-Joint venture poured capital into Chinese economy
-Legal sytem forced to conform to international standards
-underworld develops
-leads to economic gap between coast and inland areas
Doka Movement
-Taiwanese assimilation into Japanese society
-Abolished the Taiwanese language
-Encouraged the use of Japanese names
-Forced Shinto participation
Cultural Reconstruction
-KMT tries to eliminate Japanese influence
-Mandates the use of Mandarin
-No Taiwanese elite in the government
February 28 Incident
-KMT officials harass a woman, crowd gathers, police shoot into crowd
-demonstrations all over Taiwan (feature Japanese praises)
-Military reinforcements called in
-KMT is distrusted and feared
Gaoxiong Incident
-unofficial protest by opposition party is suppressed by government
-Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces
-under Gen. MacArthur
-New Dealists work for democracy (but not so much as to hurt the emperor)
-Intelligence section focuses on security
-Economic and science sections see decentralization as destabilizing
International Military Tribunal for the East
-Several hanged, imprisoned
Japan has a clear slate
-conglomerations of banks, other industries
-seen as outdated and undemocratic
-centralization hurts farmers and is despised
-mostly disassembled by SCAP folling WWII
Reverse Course
-focus is on economic development
-democracy put on backburner
Yoshida Shigeru
-Main broker of US/Japan relations
-likes imperialism but sees the need to cooperate with west: seen as pro-western
-imprisoned for advising the emperor to make a treaty during war
-failed to keep Japan politically neutral
-got Japanese independence, US military protection, access to US markets
-eventually Prime Minister
Economic Miracle
-10% growth in 50s and 60s
-shipbuilding flourishes
-MITI protect the auto industry
-increased domestic consumption
-urban migration
Security Treaty Crisis
-protests outside of Diet over treaty with US
-people don't necessarily want to side with US: won't necessarily win Cold War and their soldiers are committing crimes in Japan
-Treaty is ratified but the Prime Minister is forced to resign
Ministry of Finance & Ministry of International Trade and Investment
-guides the Japanese economy
-controls access to foreign currency, import/export licenses, etc.
-largely successful at promoting economic growth
Mitsui Mining Company
-Asked for 6000 voluntary early retirements
-Union starts a violent strike
August Committee for Preperation of Korean Independence
-Forced land reform and attacked Japanese collaborators
-envisioned a "Korean People's Republic"
-Yo Un-hyung is most visible member (populist, not a communist--liked wilsonian democracy)
Syngman Rhee
-brought back as a pillar of stability in Korea
-used police to build a dictatorship
-purged dissidents
-wanted war with North Korea
-passed the National Security Act
-subjective state of mind
-correct thought will lead to correct action
National Security Act
-anybody who supports, praises, abbetts, etc. an "enemy" state will be imprisoned for treason
-very vague and abused
April Revolution
-Rhee wins 1960 election with 90% of vote
-protests over election fraud
-Rhee calls in police who shoot protesters: leads to more protests
-Army called in but will not follow Rhee's orders
-Rhee removed by US in 2 days and sent to Hawaii
-John Chang is put in power
John Chang
-follows Rhee
-entertains public debates over issues: leads to public demonstrations
-he's ousted in Park Chung Hee's coup
Kim Dae Jung
-beats Park Chung Hee in an election but is almost killed and imprisoned
-blamed for Kwangju Incident
-exiled to US
-returns to become president
-saves economy by defying IMF
-leaves after a corruption scandal
Park Chung Hee
-Overthrows John Chang and establishes a dictatorship
-eliminates internal divisions
-bolsters economy by following Japan's example (no free market but regulations, light industry to heavy industry)--is beloved
-killed by head of KCIA
Chun Doo Hwan
-General who puts himself in power
-when riots erupt, he imposes martial law
Kwangju Incident
-riots over Chun Doo Hwan's coup and lack of US response
-special forces and military kill protesters
-Kim Dae Jung is blamed for violent repression
Roh Moo Hyun
-current SK leader
-ran on an anti-American platform

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