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APUS Vocab B-C


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A central bank, chartered by the federal government in 1791. Proposed by Alexander Hamilton, the bank collected taxes, held government funds, and regulated state banks. The bank's charter expired in 1811. A second _________ was created in 1816.
Bank of the US
A plan to assassinate Cuban leader Fidel Castro and liberate Cuba with a trained military force of political exiles. The limited 1961 invasion was an unmitigated military failure and actually strengthened Castro's position in Cuba.
Bay of Pigs Fiasco
A cultural style and artistic movement of the 1950s that rejected traditional American family life and material values and celebrated African-American culture. They tapped an underground dissatisfaction with mainstream American culture
Beat Generation
The proclaimed foreign policy of Theodore Roosevelt, it was based on the proverb "Speak softly and carry a big stick," and advocated the threat of force to achieve the United States' goals, especially in the Western Hemisphere
Big Stick Diplomacy
The first 10 amendments to the US constitution, which protect the rights of individuals from the powers of the national government. Congress and the states adopted the 10 amendments in 1791
Bill of Rights
This appellation was used to refer to common soldiers serving in Union armies during the Civil War
Billy Yank
Immigrants who never intended to make the US their home. Unable to make a living in their native countries, they came to America, worked and saved, and returned home. About 20-30% of immigrants returned home
Birds of Passage
Laws passed by Southern state legislatures during Reconstruction, while Congress was out of session. These laws limited the rights of former slaves and led Congress to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment
Black Codes
A rallying cry for more militant blacks advocated by younger leaders like Stokely Carmichael and H. Rap Brown, beginning in the mid-1960s. It called for African Americans to form their own economic, political, and cultural institutions
Black Power
October 29, 1929, the day of the stock market crash that initiated the Great Depression
Black Tuesday
Group of unemployed WWI veterans who marched on Washington, D.C., in June 1932 to ask for immediate payment of their war pensions
Bonus Army
Close advisors to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt during the early days of his first term whose policy suggestions influenced much New Deal legislation
Brain Trust
Supreme Court decision of 1954 that overturned the "separate but equal doctrine" that justified Jim Crow laws. Chief Justice Earl Warren argued that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal"
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
Thomas Jefferson's first VP, who killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel in 1804
Aaron Burr
This term refers to the heads of the executive departments
As VP, ______ anonymously expounded the doctrine of nullification, which held that states could prevent the enforcement of a federal law w/in their boundaries
John C. Calhoun
Broadly influential Protestant theology emanating from the French theologian John Calvin, who fled to Switzerland, where he reordered life in the community of Geneva according to his conception of the Bible. Calvinism emphasized the power and omnipotence
An historic 1979 peace agreement negotiated between Egypt and Israel at the US presidential retreat at Camp David, Maryland. Under the pact, Israel agreed to return captured territory to Egypt and to negotiate Palestinian autonomy in the West Bank and Ga
Camp David Accords
During the early 19th century, a movement arose to end the death penalty
Capital Punishment
People who moved South during or following the Civil War and became active in politics, they helped to bring Republican control of southern state governments during Reconstruction and were bitterly resented by most white Southerners
Georgia governor in 1970 and president in 1976. His progressive racial views reflected an emergent South less concerned with racial distinctions and more concerned with economic development and political power
Jimmy Carter
Sometimes called reluctant revolutionaries, these leaders lacked a strong trust in the people to rise above their own self-interest and provide for enlightened legislative policies (see public virtue). At the time of the American Revolution, they argued
Cautious Revolutionaries
In WWI, Germany and Austria-Hungary and their allies
Central Powers
America's leading exponent of religious liberalism, _____ was one of the founders of American Unitarianism
William Ellery Channing
An informal group of media leaders and political pundits who criticized the communist takeover of China, claiming that the US could have prevented it
The China Lobby
Phrase from John Winthrop's sermon, "A Model of Christian Charity," in which he challenged his fellow Puritans to build a model, ideal community in America that would serve as an example of how the rest of the world should order its existence.
City Upon a Hill
Landmark legislation that prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, sex, religion, or national origin in employment and public facilities such as hotels, restaurants, and playgrounds. It established the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Civil Rights Act of 1964
As Speaker of the House of Representatives, Senator, and unsuccessful candidate for the presidency, he was an advocate of the "American System," which called for a protective tariff, a national bank, and federally funded internal improvements.
Henry Clay
The effort to encourage masters to voluntarily emancipate their slaves and to resettle free blacks in Africa
The process of transferring plants, animals, foods, diseases, wealth, and culture between Europe and the Americas, beginning at the time of Christopher Colombus and continuing throughout the era of exploration and expansion. The exchange often resulted i
Colombian Exchange
US propaganda agency of WWI
Committee on Public Information (CPI)
As American leaders became increasingly anxious about a perceived British imperial conspiracy to deprive them of their liberties, they set up networks of communication among the colonies. Beginning in 1773 colonial assemblies began to appoint these commi
Committees of Correspondence
This best-selling pamphlet by Thomas Paine, first published in 1776, denounced the British monarchy, called for American independence, and encouraged the adoption of republican forms of government. Paine's bold words thus helped crack the power of reconc
Common Sense
A bargain made between southern Democrats and Republican candidate Rutherford B. Hayes after the disputed presidential election of 1876. The southern Democrats pledged to let Hayes take office in return for his promise to withdraw the remaining federal t
Compromise of 1877
Popular site of New York amusement parks opening in 1890s, attracting working class Americans with rides and games celebrating abandon and instant gratification
Coney Island
Not every person living in the north during the Civil War favored making war against the Confederacy. Such persons came to be known as ______. Often affiliated with the Democratic party and residing in the Midwest, _______favored a negotiated peace settl
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's controversial plan to appoint Supreme Court justices who were sympathetic to his views, by offering retirement benefits to sitting justices
Court Packing
A movement founded by Jacob S. ______ to help the unemployed during the depression of the 1890s, it brought out-of-work people to Washington D.C., to demand that the federal government provide jobs and inflate the currency
Coxey's Army
The conflict in 1962 prompted by Soviet installation of missiles on Cuba and President Kennedy's announcement to the American public. After days of genuine fear on both sides, the two sides negotiated a --whereby the Soviet Union removed the missiles and
Cuban Missile Crisis
An African American sea captain, ____ led the first experiment in colonization when he transported 38 free blacks to Sierra Leone in 1815
Paul Cuffe

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