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Government Test 2


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What is the one person one vote concept?
a rule requiring that congressional districts must have equal population so that one person's vote counts as much as anothers.
What are the responsibilities of Commander in Chief?
Lead the nations armed forces
Can commit troops for up to 90 days
Set up military governments in conquered lands
Can call a cease fire (armistice)
What is Apportionment?
More populous states have more seats.
What are the two types of Jurisdiction and where are they mentioned?
Original and Apellate

Article 3
What is a speaker Pro tempore?
The substitue a speaker appoints to lead the session so the speaker can vote.
What is a Filibuster?
Senate tradition of unlimited debate
Define the House
Represents the people
Seats based on population
435 voting members
2-year term
Elected by voters of a particular area (congressional district)
May impeach
More formal rules
Has limited debate
Has controlled floor action
Less prestige and less individual notice
Originates bills for raising revenues
Local or narrow leadership
What is common law?
body of law developed from judicial decisions in England not attributed to legislature.
What percentage of Senators are elected every 2 years?
What are the Roles of the President?
Chief Exectuive
Commander in Chief
Chief of State
Chief Diplomat
Cheif Legislator
Political Party Leader
What can the president do to a bill?
Veto or make it into law
What is the State of the Union Address?
Required by Constitution, given in January last 2 hours
Who do Senators represent?
all the people of the state
How often has the president declared war?
5 times

Persian Gulf/Desert Storm
How does a bill become a law?
Introduced (only by Congress)
Referred to committees
Standing committee
back to Standing Committee
House or Senate Report on Bill
Rules committee and Scheduling
Floor Debate
Conference committee

What are the 3 levels of Federal Court?
Trial aka district courts
Appeals aka Circuit court of appeals or appellate
Supreme Court
What were the house and the Senate based on?
The Great Compromise, a bicameral legislation
Who started and what is the Spoils System?
Jackson began it and it is rewarding party members with presidential appointments
What is a joint committee?
A committee made up of both the house and the senate
What does the 22nd ammendment state?
No president elected more than twice, or if held office more than two years, only elected once more
Who do representatives represent?
voters of a particular area known as a congressional district.
What is the War Powers Resolution?
Presidential ability to send troops for 90 days without Congressional approval
How often are House seats reapportioned and how are they reapportioned?
Every 10 years

By Census

Distributed 2 years after the Census
How many times has there been a vacancy in the office of president during a term?
8 times (4 assassinations, 4 natural causes)

4 assassinations: Licoln, Garfield, McKinley, Kennedy
How many seats did Georgia have last year and how many seats in the house does Georgia have this year?
was 11 now is 13
Where can you find the Presidential Powers?
Article 2 of the Constitution
What are the qualifications for Senate?
30 years old
US citizen for 9 years
Legal resident of state he is representing
What is Justicable?
a real and substantial controversy.
What is a congressional district?
The geographic area that is served by one representative in congress.
Who helps the president oversee and manage the budget?
The Office of Management and Business
What is the percentage of incumbents reelected?
What is the "Rule of Four?"
4 supreme court justices must agree to hear a case before it will be allowed in the Supreme Court
What is a safe seat?
Voters already know who will be elected (might be running unopposed)
What are the responsibilities of Chief of State?
Throws out first Baseball of season
Lights national Christmas tree
Decorates war heros
Dedicates parks and post offices
Who is the Minority leader?
party leader of the minority party in the house
What is Criminal Law?
The branch of law that defines and governs actions that constitute crimes.
Define the Senate
Represents the states
100 members
Serve 6 years
Must be 30 years of age
originally elected by state legislature
Fewer rules and regulations
Extended debates
Unanimous consent rules
More prestige
Power of advise and consent on presidential appointments and treaties
National leadership (2 represent entire state)
What are the responsibilities of Chief Exectutive?
Enforces laws and federal court decisions
Can appoint and remove high ranking officials
Can grant pardons and reprieves
Handles national emergencies
What is a conference committee?
a joint commitee that merges the two versions of a bill into one.
How many Federal District courts are there?
What is a standard commitee?
A constant committee with sub-committees
What is a treaty?
a treaty is a formal agreement between two or more governments

The president can negotiate and sign the treaties, but the Senate must approve it by a 2/3 vote
When does the Speaker of the House vote?
He only must vote to break a tie, if he wishes to vote other times he must appoint a substitute to take his place.
What is the procedure to hear oral arguments in the Supreme Court?
Each side is given only 30 minutes to present its case.
Who is the Majority Leader?
a spokesman for the majority party in the house
Who was the only Roman Catholic President?
What is a divided government?
Congress is of one party and the President is of another
What is the public defender system?
Every one has a right to an attorney, if you can't afford one the court will provide one
What are the responsibilities of the minority leader?
keeps the party cohesive and organizes constructive criticism of majority party
What is "going Public"?
using public forums to help push through congress or gain support of something the president wishes.
What is a special committee?
a committee that may not be constant to study a particular problem
How is a justice appointed?
The president nominates them and the senate must vote 50% +1 to approve them
What is the common name given to Congressional members "scratching each other's backs"?
Log Rolling
What is the responsibilities of the Political Party Leader?
Chooses a VP
makes top government appointments
Tries to execute the party platform
May attend party fund raisers
May assist other party members elections
Who is the presiding officer in the house?
Speaker of the house

usually a longitme member of the majority party
What is original jurisdiction?
state vs. state
foreign ambassadors etc.
What are the qualifications for Representative?
25 years old
US citizen for 7 years
Legal resident of state they will represent
What are the 4 steps to a fiscal budget?
1. Preparation (May 30th)
2. Approval
3. execution/implementation (Oct. 1st)
4. Audit (Sept. 30th)
What percentage of Representatives are elected every 2 years?
What is Judicial Review?
power of the supreme court to decide on constituionality
What are the responsibilities of the Majority Leader?
plans the party's legislative program

Organize other party members to support legislation favored by the party

follow up on bills in committee that are important to the party

Make speeches on the important bills stating the party's position
What is executive agreement?
An agreement between the president and another head of state. No congressional approval needed.
What are the responsibilities of the Speaker of the House?
substantial control over assigning bills to committees

Presides over the sessions of the house

votes in event of a tie

rules on points of order

proposes and tally's votes

makes committee assignments

Schedules bills for action
What is Judicial Restraint?
the belief that the constitution should be interpretted exactly as written
What is a minority/majority whip?
They assist the majority/minority leader

try to determine how others will vote

make sure members are present to vote
What is the profile of the 107th Congress?
63 Women
59 Minorities
1 independent
223 republicans
208 democrats

13 women
3 minorities
1 independent
49 republicans
50 democrats
Who is the President of the Senate?
The head of the senate

the Vice President of the US
What is senatorial courtesy?
Speaking to the senator from the state that needs a justice for the district court level. Asking for their opinion
Responsibilities of the President of the Senate?
Call on members to speak

put questions to a vote

Cast a vote only in event of a tie
What is an executive order?
a presidential order to carry out a policy in a law passed by congress
What is Gerrymandering?
drawing of legislative boundaries to maximize the influence of a certain group or political party
What does the Solicitor General do?
Represents the government in front of the surpreme court
Who serves in the absense of the President of the Senate (VP)
President Pro Tempore

Majority member with longest continued service in senate
Who are the Cabinet Members?
Agriculture- Veneman
Commerce- Evans
Defense- Rumsfeld
Education- Paige
Energy- Abraham
Health and Human Services- Thompson
Housing and Urban Development-Martinez
Interior- Norton
Justice- Ashcroft
Labor- Chao
State- powell
Transportation- Mineta
Treasury- O'Neil
Veterans affairs- Principi
How can a veto be reversed?
2/3 vote of both house and senate override a veto
What is a concurring opinion?
a statement written by a judge or justice who agrees with the court's decision, but for different reasons
What is the rules committee?
standing committee in the house that provides how rules will be considered and debated by the house.
What are the qualifications of President?
35 years old
A natural born US citizen
a US resident for 14 years
If the president does nothing to a bill what happens?
If congress is in session 10 days it passes

If Congress is out of session 10 days it vetos (pocket veto)
What is the council of Economics Advisers?
3 member council created in 1946 on economic matters
What is Cloture?
A method of ending a debate in the senate and bringing it under consideration of a vote.
What is Statutory Law?
The body of law enacted by legislature
What are the resposibilities of the Chief Diplomat?
Negotiate and sign treaties with other nations
make pacts with heads of state
can accept the legal existence of another country's governement
Receives foreign chiefs of state
How many Federal Circuit Court of Appeals are there?
What are the responsibilities of the Chief Legislator?
Gives State of the Union Address
Suggests budgets and submits annual reports
Can veto bills passed by congress
Can call special sessions of Congress
What is appellate jurisdicition?
cases on appeal
What is the Executive Office of the President?
White House Office
Council of Economic Advisors
Council of Environmental Quality
Nation Security Council
Office of Administration
Office of Management and Budget
Office of national Drug control Policy
Office of Policy Development
-Domestic policy council
-National Economic Council
Office of Science and Technology
Office of US trade Representative
Vice President
What is Stare Decisis
common law that requires judges to follow precedents
What is the typical profile of a president?
Male, white, Protestant, mostly Lawyers
Who are the Worst and Greatest Presidents?
Greatest: Lincoln
Worst: Buchanan
What president did not have a college degree?
Who in the justice department prosecutes?
Attorney General
Solcitor General
What is Diversity Case?
federal court jurisdiction arising when two parties live in different states, one of the parties is a foreign government or citizen, or amount is over $75,000
What is the 25th Ammendment?
sets policy in case president is incapacitated. Also allows replacing President to nominate a VP
What is Amicus Curiae Brief?
a professional person or organization that is not a party to a particular litigation but that is permitted by the court to advise it in respect to some matter of law that directly affects the case in question
What is Legal Service Corp?
a service provided like the welfare system to assist poverty level citizens with legal matters.
What is Precedent?
a court decision that furnished an example to be used in other court cases
What is Constitutional Law
Law based on the US and State constitutions
What are the qualifications for a Justice?
There are no qualifications listed other than they serve life with good behavior
What is Civil Law?
duties that individuals in society owe others not including criminal charges (usually monetary)
What is Judicial Activism?
The belief that the Supreme Court should interpret the Constitution as it applys to today
What is Case Law?
rules of law announced in court decisions
What is the National Security Council?
a council on domestic and foreign matters concerning the saftey and defense of the nation. created 1947
What is standing?
requirement that an individual must have a sufficient stake in the controversy before He or she can bring a lawsuit.
Succession of the President?
Speaker of the House
President Pro Tem of the Senate
Secretary of State
Secretary of Treasury
Secretary of Defense
Attorney General
Secretary of the Interior
Secretary of Agriculture
Secretary of Commerce
What is a Dissenting Opinion?
a written opinion disagreeing with the majority opinion
How does Congress have power over the supreme court?
The must approve the nominations of the Supreme Court Justices
What is a writ of Ceriorari?
A Petition for the supreme court to hear a case on appeal

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