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Helens computer


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accounting software
An application program that helps small business owners manage their finances more efficiently by providing tools for tracking accounting transactions such as sales, accounts receivable, inventory purchases, and accounts payable.
Advanced Research Products Agency Network (ARPANET)
A U.S. governmentfunded project for the military in the 1960s, ARPANET was the first attempt to enable computers to communicate over vast distances in a reliable manner.
application software
The set of programs on a computer that helps a user carry out tasks such as word processing, sending e-mail, balancing a budget, creating presentations, editing photos, taking an online course, and playing games.
Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)
A typical Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) transmission that downloads (or receives) data from the Internet faster than it uploads (or sends) data.
beta versions
Early versions of software programs that are still under development. Beta versions are usually provided free of charge in return for user feedback.
Afeature in the Netscape browser that places a marker of a Web site's Uniform Resource Locator (URL) in an easily retrievable list in the browser's toolbar (called Favorites in Microsoft Internet Explorer).
Boolean operators
Words used to refine Internet searches. These words-AND, NOT, and OR-describe the relationships between keywords in a search.
breadcrumb list
A list that shows the hierarchy of Web pages above the Web page that you are currently visiting. Shown at the top of some Web pages, it provides an aid to Web site navigation.
broadband connections
High-speed Internet connections, including cable, satellite, and Digital Subscriber Line (DSL).
business-to-business (B2B)
E-commerce transactions between businesses.
business-to-consumer (B2C)
E-commerce transactions between businesses and consumers.
cable modem
A device that modulates and demodulates the cable signal into digital data and back again. The cable TV signal and Internet data can share the same line.
chat room
An area on the Web where people come together to communicate online. The conversations are in real time and are visible to everyone in the chat room.
click-and-brick businesses
Traditional stores that have an online presence.
A computer that requests information (such as your computer when you are connected to the Internet).
client/server network
A network that consists of client and server computers, in which the clients make requests of the server and the server "serves up" the response.
client-based e-mail
E-mail that is dependent on an e-mail account provided by an Internet service provider (ISP) and a client software program, such as Microsoft Outlook or Eudora.
coaxial cable
Asingle copper wire surrounded by layers of plastic insulation and sheathing.
computer-aided design (CAD)
3-D modeling programs used to create automated designs, technical drawings, and model visualizations.
consumer-to-consumer (C2C)
E-commerce transactions between consumers through online sites such as
Small text files that some Web sites automatically store on a client computer's hard drive when a user visits the site.
course management software
Programs that provide traditional classroom tools such as calendars and grade books over the Internet, as well as areas for students to exchange ideas and information in chat rooms, discussion forums, and using e-mail.
custom installation
Installing only those features of a software program that a user wants on the hard drive, thereby saving space on the hard drive.
customer relationship management (CRM) software
A business program used for storing sales and client contact information in one central database.
data transfer rate (or throughput)
The speed at which a storage device transfers data to other computer components, expressed in kilobits per second (Kbps) or megabits per second (Mbps).
database software
An electronic filing system best used for larger and more complicated groups of data that require more than one table, and where it's necessary to group, sort, and retrieve data, and to generate reports.
desktop publishing (DTP) software
Programs for incorporating and arranging graphics and text to produce creative documents.
dial-up connection
Aconnection to the Internet using a standard telephone line.
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
A technology that uses telephone lines to connect to the Internet and provide higher throughput. DSL enables phone and data transmission to share the same telephone line.
digital video-editing software
Programs for editing digital video.
domain name
Part of a Uniform Resource Locator (URL). Domain names consist of two parts: The first part indicates who the site's host is; the second part is a three-letter suffix that indicates the type of organization. (Example:
drawing software (or illustration software)
Programs for creating or editing twodimensional line-based drawings.
DSL modem
See Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) modem
educational software
Applications that offer some form of instruction or training.
electronic commerce (e-commerce)
Conducting business online for purposes ranging from fund-raising to advertising to selling products.
e-mail (electronic mail)
Internet-based communication in which senders and recipients correspond.
entertainment software
Programs designed to provide users with entertainment; computer games make up the vast majority of entertainment software.
A feature in Microsoft Internet Explorer that places a marker of a Web site's Uniform Resource Locator (URL) in an easily retrievable list in the browser's toolbar. (Called Bookmarks in Netscape.)
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
Aprotocol used to upload and download files from one computer to another over the Internet.
financial and business-related software
Software used by businesses or individuals that helps them perform specific or general business tasks.
financial planning software
Programs for managing finances, such as Intuit's Quicken and Microsoft Money, which include electronic checkbook registers and automatic bill payment tools.
Any copyrighted software that can be used for free.
frequently asked questions (FAQs)
A list of answers to the most common questions.
full installation
Installing all the files and programs from the distribution CD to the computer's hard drive.
graphics and multimedia software
Programs to design and create attractive documents, images, illustrations, and Web pages, as well as three-dimensional models and drawings.
Software that helps people who are in different locations work together using e-mail and online scheduling tools.
History list
A feature on a browser's toolbar that shows all the Web sites and pages visited over a certain period of time.
A list of sites (or results) that match an Internet search.
home page
The main or opening page of a Web site.
Organization that maintains the Web server on which a particular Web site is stored.
Specially coded text that, when clicked, enables a user to jump from one location, or Web page, to another within the Web site or to another Web site altogether.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
The protocol a browser uses to send requests to a Web server; created especially for the transfer of hypertext documents over the Internet.
image-editing software (sometimes called photo-editing software)
Programs for editing photographs and other images.
instant messaging (IM) services
Programs that enable users to communicate in real time with others who are also online.
integrated software application
A single software program that incorporates the most commonly used tools of many productivity software programs into one integrated stand-alone program.
Anetwork of networks and the largest network in the world, connecting millions of computers from more than 65 countries.
Internet backbone
The main pathway of high-speed communications lines over which all Internet traffic flows.
Internet Explorer (IE)
A popular graphical browser from Microsoft Corporation for displaying different Web sites, or locations, on the Web; it can display pictures (graphics) in addition to text, as well as other forms of multimedia, such as sound and video.
Internet hoaxes
E-mail messages that contain information that is untrue.
Internet Protocol address (IP address)
The means by which all computers connected to the Internet identify each other. It consists of a unique set of four numbers separated by dots, such as 123.45.678.91.
Internet service providers (ISPs)
National, regional, or local companies that connect individuals, groups, and other companies to the Internet.
An ongoing project sponsored by more than 200 universities (supported by government and industry partners) to develop new Internet technologies and disseminate them as rapidly as possible to the rest of the Internet community. The Internet2 backbone supports extremely high-speed communications (up to 9.6 gigabits per second [Gbps]).
(1) Specific words a user wishes to query (or look for) in an Internet search. (2) The set of specific words that have predefined meanings for a particular programming language.
Large Scale Networking (LSN)
Aprogram created by the U.S. government, the objective of which is to fund the research and development of cutting-edge networking technologies. Major goals of the program are the development of enhanced wireless technologies and increased network throughput.
Small programs that group a series of commands to run as a single command.
mapping programs
Software that provides street maps and written directions to locations.
meta search engine
A search engine that searches other search engines rather than individual Web sites.
A device that converts (modulates) the digital signals the computer understands to the analog signals that can travel over phone lines.
Anything that involves one or more forms of media plus text.
General rules of etiquette for Internet chat rooms and other online forums.
Netscape Navigator
A popular graphical browser from Netscape Communications for displaying different Web sites, or locations, on the Web; it can display pictures (graphics) in addition to text, as well as other forms of multimedia, such as sound and video.
network interface card (NIC)
An expansion (or adapter) card that enables a computer to connect with a network.
newsgroup (or discussion group)
An online discussion forum in which people "post" messages and read and reply to messages from other members of the newsgroup.
online service providers (OSPs)
Internet access providers such as America Online (AOL) that have their own proprietary online content and often offer special services and areas that only their subscribers can access.
painting software
Programs for modifying photographs.
path (or subdirectory)
The information following the slash in a Uniform Resource Locator (URL).
PC cards (or PCMCIA, which stands for Personal Computer Memory Card International Association)
Credit card-sized cards that enable users to add fax modems, network connections, wireless adapters, USB 2.0 and FireWire ports, and other capabilities primarily to laptops.
personal information manager (PIM) software
Programs such as Microsoft Outlook or Lotus Organizer that strive to replace the various management tools found on a traditional desk, such as a calendar, address book, notepad, and to-do lists.
plug-in (or player)
Asmall software program that "plugs in" to a Web browser to enable a specific function; for example, to view and hear some multimedia files on the Web.
A subject directory on the Internet that is part of a larger Web site that focuses on offering its visitors a variety of information, such as the weather, news, sports, and shopping guides.
presentation software
An application program for creating dynamic slide shows, such as Microsoft PowerPoint or Corel Presentations.
productivity software
Programs that enable a user to perform various tasks generally required in home, school, and business. This category includes word processing, spreadsheet, presentation, personal information management (PIM), and database programs.
Instruction set that provides a means for users to interact with and use the computer, all without specialized computer programming skills.
project management software
An application program such as Microsoft Project that helps project managers easily create and modify project management scheduling charts.
proprietary software
Aprogram that is owned and controlled by the company it is created by or for.
(1) Aset of rules for exchanging data and communication. (2) The first part of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) indicating the set of rules used to retrieve the specified document. The protocol is generally followed by a colon, two forward slashes, www (indicating World Wide Web), and then the domain name.
reference software
A software application that acts as a source for reference materials, such as standard atlases, dictionaries, and thesauri.
satellite Internet
A way to connect to the Internet using a small satellite dish, which is placed outside the home and connects to a computer with coaxial cable. The satellite company then sends the data to a satellite orbiting the earth. The satellite, in turn, sends the data back to the satellite dish and to the computer.
search engine
Aset of programs that searches the Web for specific words (or keywords) you wish to query (or look for) and then returns a list of the Web sites on which those keywords are found.
A computer that provides resources to other computers on a network.
Software that enables users to "test" software by running it for a limited time free of charge.
The set of computer programs or instructions that tells the computer what to do and enables it to perform different tasks.
software licenses
Agreements between the user and the software developer that must be accepted prior to installing the software on a computer.
software piracy
Violating a software license agreement by copying an application onto more computers than the license agreement permits.
software suite
A collection of software programs that have been bundled together as a package.
Unwanted or junk e-mail.
speech-recognition software (or voice-recognition software)
Software that translates spoken words into typed text.
spider (or crawler or bot)
Aprogram that constantly collects information on the Web, following links in Web sites and reading Web pages. Spiders got their name because they crawl over the Web using multiple "legs" to visit many sites simultaneously.
spreadsheet software
An application program such as Microsoft Excel or Lotus 1-2-3 that enables a user to do calculations and numerical analyses easily.
subject directory
A structured outline of Web sites organized by topics and subtopics. Yahoo! is a popular subject directory.
Symmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL)
ADigital Subscriber Line (DSL) transmission that uploads and downloads data at the same speed.
system requirements
Minimum storage, memory capacity, and processing standards recommended by the software manufacturer to ensure proper operation of a software application.
system software
The set of programs that enables a computer's hardware devices and application software to work together; it includes the operating system and utility programs.
tax-preparation software
An application program such as Intuit's TurboTax and H&R Block's TaxCut for preparing state and federal taxes. Each program offers a complete set of tax forms and instructions as well as expert advice on how to complete each form.
telephony software
Software that, combined with the Internet, speakers, and a microphone, turns a computer into a high-tech phone and answering service.
Forms included in many productivity applications that provide the basic structure for a particular kind of document, spreadsheet, or presentation.
top-level domain (TLD)
The three-letter suffix in the domain name (such as .com or .edu) that indicates the kind of organization the host is.
twisted pair wiring (or twisted pair cable)
Telephone lines made of copper wires that are twisted around each other and surrounded by a plastic jacket.
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
AWeb site's unique address, such as
Technology that enables a person sitting at a computer and equipped with a personal video camera and a microphone to transmit video and audio across the Internet (or other communications medium). All computers participating in a videoconference need to have a microphone and speakers installed so that participants can hear one another.
virtual reality programs
Software that turns an artificial environment into a realistic experience.
Web browser
Software that enables a user to access the Web.
Web page authoring software
Programs you can use to design interactive Web pages without knowing any Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) code.
Web site
A location on the Web.
Web-based e-mail
E-mail that uses the Internet as the client; therefore, a user can access a Web-based e-mail account from any computer that has access to the Web-no special client software is needed.
weblog (blog)
Personal logs or journal entries posted on the Web.
Symbols used in an Internet search when the user is unsure of the keyword's spelling or when a word can be spelled in different ways or can contain different endings. The asterisk (*) is used to replace a series of letters and the percent sign (%) to replace a single letter in a word.
Step-by-step guides that walk you through the necessary steps to complete a complicated task.
word processing software
Programs used to create and edit written documents such as papers, letters, and résumés.
World Wide Web (WWW or Web)
The part of the Internet used the most. What distinguishes the Web from the rest of the Internet is (1) its use of common communication protocols (such as Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, or TCP/IP) and special languages (such as the Hypertext Markup Language, or HTML) that enable different computers to talk to each other and display information in compatible formats, and (2) its use of special links (called hyperlinks) that enable users to jump from one place to another in the Web.

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