This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

ENGL 361 Final Exam


undefined, object
copy deck
Define alliteration
2 or more words in a phrase with the same sound
Rhythm of Anglo-Saxon poetry; heavy beat with weak stresses
Where most new derivational prefixes and suffixes in ME came from
Something new in comparison of adjectives in ME
periphrastic- formed in phrase (more, most, not -est)
Meaning of "very" in ME
"true" (comes from French "vrai", spelled verray)
Comment on negation of the verb in OE and ME
double negatives could be used. ne+verb+not
Why the number of dialects in English increased after the Conquest?
With the feudal system, the peasants were tied to the land & isolated from one another.
What is the periphrastic posessive, and how did we get it?
It came from French. It involves using multiple words to express posessive, such as "the house of my father"
Comment on rigidity of syntax in ME
ME was less free than AS because inflections were lost, but not as rigid as PDE
Most important change in morphology in ME
loss of inflectional endings
What is meant by the OE "plural preterite," a form more and more lost in ME?
ends in "n"- plural form and infinitive. eg, riden, goon
number of the original seven OE verb classes remaining in ME
none; all had decayed, and there were no longer 7 distinct verb classes.
What are "levels of diction?"
Intricate systems of vocabulary used in different situations, ranging from colloquial to formal
Why PDE speakers often err by saying "hisself"
Defective paradigm. With new development, other forms emerged.
Types of OE words that survived best in ME
the most common words
How infinitive was marked in OE and ME
OE- "an" ME- preposition before verb substituted for infinitive ending
Change in inflection of the adjectives from OE to ME
adjectives lost all inflections and strong/weak distinctions
3 word classes that became larger in ME
1. adverbs 2. prepositions 3. conjunctions
What happened to the suffix "lic" in ME?
It changed to ly. It was an adjective suffix (eg, manlic- manly)
What happened to dipthongs from OE to ME?
Entire inventory changed; raised vowels shifted all dipthongs
4 inflectional categories preserved in ME (and PDE) pronoun
1. number 2. gender 3. case 4. person
What happened to vowel LENGTH from OE to ME
It leveled. Short vowels lengthened, and vowel length stopped being phonemic.
What are "perfect" verb tesnes?
actions already completed
What happened in ME to unstressed OE final e?
It was lost in pronunciation of words around 1375 (seen in Chaucer's work)
3 reasons for the survival & resurgence of English during the period 1204-1509
1. John Lackland's loss of land in France 2. Black Death 3. 100 years war
Historical stage of the language in which omission of the relative pronoun was impermissible.
AS and PDE.
Two new uses of auxiliary "do" in ME
pro-verb or pro-clause. replace verb or caluse ME- negative. "Do not."
Distinguish biological and grammatical gender. Which did ME have?
grammatical gender is not related to physical gender; it is arbitrary. Biological gender is based on the sex of the person or animal discussed. ME had biological gender.
Two "dummy subjects" that came into use during ME
it, there
Type of verbs that suffered greatest lexical losses in ME
strong verbs
One statement about profanity
There was a difference between idle and necessary swearing
Why many French loanwords were adopted but quickly lost
So many were adopted that they became redundant. Increased specialization, narrowing.
Useful OE indefinite pronoun, used less in ME and lost in PDE. What words do we substitute for it.
"Mann." We substitute "one" or "you."
What is meant by "shift in denotation?"
a change in the word's literal definition
Five types of ME literature
1. Secular 2. Religious Prose 3. Secular Verse 4. Religious & didactic verse 5. drama
Define Back formation
making new words from existing words by incorrectly assuming that they are forms of another word (eg, getting pea from "pease")
Effect of Black Plague on English language
Labor shortages increased the prestige of English (spoken by peasants)
Changes in verb tenses during ME period
Pred tense change= compound/complex tenses. More than one word.
What is "oral literature?"
verse, rhyming poetry. It came into English after the conquest. In a non-literate society, it had to be easy to memorize. Included histories, Bible stories, recipes, etc, and were passed by minstrels.
Two Contributions William the Conquerer made to English culture
1. Feudal System 2. French language
Only English pronoun that signals gender
3rd person singular
comment on use of modal auxiliaries in ME
began to use modal auxiliaries like "may" and "might" as well as quasi-modals like "be going to" in place of inflected subjunctive
Give an example of a group posessive, a construction impossible in ME.
The house on the corner's roof
Why is periphrasis an important term in discussing development of verb tenses in ME?
periphrasis- expresses in a phrase what was once expressed with inflections, eg "a prince of _____", phrase
3 Literary Languages during ME period
1. Latin 2. French 3. English
a pair of graphemes that represents a single phoneme
Comment on coordination and subordination of syntax in OE and ME
paratactic ME had more subordinate and embedded clauses
Dialect of English from which Middle English developed
London Standard (East Midlands)
Digraphs that entered English during ME period.
ch, ou, gh, wh
In ME, the singular pronoun meaning "you" and the plural one.
singular: "th's" thou, thine, thee, thy, etc. plural/formal: yo, eow, eower. Generalized.
3 forms of noun in ME
1. singular 2. plural 3. posessive
What happened to short vowels in unstressed syllables during ME?
they were reduced to /schwa/ , which came to be spelled with an "e." There was heavy stress on the root syllable.
Example of the inflected subjunctive in PDE
unrealized, impossible. "If I were you."
Rhythm adoped after Norman Conquest; it is more song-like.
3 types of eccentric plurals in ME
1. unmarked (deer, fish, elk, moose) 2. mutated (mice, men) 3. "n" ending (children)
Prepositions used with passive verb- in early ME and in late ME
all prepositions changed their meaning. agentive- preposition used with passive verb, such as "by" or in ME, "with"
3 changes during ME associated with progress of English from a synthetic to a more analytic language
1. loss of grammatical gender (replaced with biological) 2. loss of inflections 3. loss of strong/weak adjectives
Example of correlative conjunction
words that come in pairs. either/or, neither/nor, used more in AS than today.
comment on double negatives in ME and PDE
They could be used in ME. 19th century grammarians said that it inverted the meaning in PDE
Most common type of semantic change in ME and way
narrowing, because the language got so many new words from French
Change in spelling from OE to ME
spelling became more chaotic, and began using French rules.
Separable Verb
a 2 part verb with a base verb and a separate prepositional verb (eg, pick up)
Development of definite and indefinite articles
a/an was an AS word for "one"
Characterisitcs of English that make it easy for us to borrow words from other languages
1. inflectional simplicity 2. wide variety of phonemes 3. complex, allowable syllable structure
4 means of word formation in ME
1. compounding 2. affixing 3. clipping 4. back formation 5. blends
Why texts in English are rare during period 1100-1200
English lost prestige; French & Latin were literary languages.
2 Losses in consonant sounds from OE to ME with examples of words that illustrate those losses
1. loss of long consonants (bedd) 2. /h/ before some consonants (hwil)
Change in phrasal rhythm from OE to ME
AS= trochaic (heavy beat with weak stress) ME-iambic ~/~/~/~/
List ME dialect areas
1. Northern 2. Southern 3. West Midland 3. East Midland 5. Kentish
Change in formation of the future tense during ME
OE used present tense to express the future. ME used modal auxiliaries such as "shall" and "will."

Deck Info