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Pyschology final


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relatively stable and enduring patterns of thoughts, feelings, and actions
the most widely researched and clinically used self-report personality test
minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI)
psychological tests using ambiguous stimuli, such as inkblots or drawings, which allow the test taker to project his or her unconscious onto the test material
projective tests
a projective test that presents a set of 10 crds with inkblots; describe what they see
Rorschach Inkblot Test
a projective test that shows a series of ambiguous black and white pictures; create a story for each
Thematic Apperception Test
a relatively stable and consistent characteristic that can be used to describe someone
statistical procedure for determining the most basic units or factors in a large array of data
factor analysis
trait theory that explains personality- openness, conscientousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism
Five-Facotr Model
he condensed the list of 18,000 traits to 30 or 35 basic traits
he reduced the list of traits down to 3 basic traits- extroversion-introversion, neuroticism, and psychotism
Hans Eysenck
thoughts or motives that a person is currently aware of or is remembering-freud
thoughts or motives that one can become aware of easily-freud
thoughts or motives that lie beyond a person's normal awareness but that can be made available through psychoanalysis- freud
the source of instinctual energy, which works on the pleasure principle and is concerned with immediate gratification- freud
the principle on which the id operates- seeking immediate pleasure
pleasure principle
the rational part of the psyche that deals with reality by controlling the id, while also satisfying the superego
the principle on which the conscious ego operates
reality principle
the part of the personality that incorporates parental and societal standards for morality
satisfies the id and superego by distorting reality
defense mechanisms
freud's first and most basic defense mechanism, which blocks unacceptable impulses from coming into awareness
in freudian theory, 5 developmental periods during which particular kinds of pleasures must be gratified if personality development is to proceed normally
psychosexual stages
the 5 psychosexual stages
oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital
period of conflict during the phallic stage when children are sexually attracted to the opposite sex parent and hostile towards the same sex parent
oedipus complex
he developed individual psychology and saw behavior as purposeful and goal directed; inferiority complex; birth order
Alfred Adler
Adler's idea that feelings of inferiority develop from early childhood experiences of helplessness and incompetence
inferiority complex
he developed analytical psychology and believed the unconscious had positive and negative motives; collective unconscious and archetypes
Carl Jung
Jung's concept of an inherited unconscious that all humans share
collective unconscious
according to Jung, the images or patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behavior that reside in the collective unconscious
she believed that male-female differences were the result of social and cultural factors, not biological factors; power envy instead of penis envy; basic anxiety
Karen Horney
according to Horney, the feelings of helplessness and insecurity that adults experience because as children they felt alone and isolated in a hostile environment
basic anxiety
Freud, Adler, Jung, and Horney practiced these theories
psychoanalytic or psychodynamic theories
he believed the most important component of personality is the self; self concept; unconditional positive regard
Carl Rogers
Rogers' term for all the info and beliefs individuals have about their own nature, qualities, and behavior
Rogers' term for positive behavior toward a person with no contingencies attached
unconditional positive regard
he believed people strived to reach self actualization
Abraham Maslow
the innate tendency toward growth that motivates all human behavior and results in the full realization of a person's highest potential
self actualization
Rogers and Maslow practiced this theory
humanistic theory
he reintroduced thought processes into personality theory through self-efficacy and reciprocal determinism
Albert Bandura
learned beliefs that one is capable of producing desired results, such as mastering new skills and achieving personal goals
belief that cognitions, behaviors, and the learning environment interact to produce personality
reciprocal determinism
he believed learning created cognitive expectancies that guide behavior; expect and reinforcement value; locus of control
Julian Rotter
Bandura and Rotter practiced this theory
social/cognitive theory
theory of personality that focuses on the brain, neurochemistry, and genetics
biological theory
major theories overlap and each contributes to our understanding of personality
patterns of emotion, thought, and action considered pathological
abnormal behevaior
4 basic standards for abnormal behavior
statistical infrequency, disability or dysfunction, personal distress, violation of norms
legal term applied when people cannot be held responsible for their actions or allowed to manage their own affairs because of mental illness
using stone instruments to bore a hole in the skull to allow evil spirits to escape; practiced during Stone Age
religious treatment during the Middle Ages that involved prayer, fasting, noise making, beating, and drinking brews
specialized hospitals during the 15th and 16th centuries
he demanded that inmates in asylums be treated humanely and believed disturbed people had a physical illness
Philippe Pinel
perspective that assumes diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and possibly cured; Pinel
medical model
branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders
he believed the medical model encourages people to believe they have no responsibility for their actions and can find solutions in drugs
Thomas Szasz
he conducted a study where people pretended to hear voices and were placed in asylums where they reported hearing no more voices
David Rosenhan
classification system developed by the APA used to describe abnormal behaviors
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)
outmoded term for disorders characterized by unrealistic anxiety
serious mental disorders characterized by loss of contact with reality and extreme mental disruption
type of abnormal behavior characterized by unrealistic, irrational fear
anxiety disorder
chronic, uncontrollable, and excessive worry not focused on any particular object or situation; affects twice as many women as men; 6 months; free floating
generalized anxiety disorder
sudden and inexplicable attacks of intense fear
panic disorder
intense, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
a phobia where people restrict their normal behavior because they fear being in busy, crowded places
a fear of a specific object or situation
simple phobias
feelings of extreme insecurity in social situations
social phobias
intrusive, repetitive thoughts, urges to perform repetitive, ritualistic behaviors, or both; equally common in men and women
obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
constantly scanning the environment for signs of danger and ignoring signs of safety
long lasting depressed mood that interferes with the ability to function, feel pleasure, or maintain interest in life; mood disorder
major depressive disorder
repeated episodes of mania and depression; mood disorder
bipolar disorder
Seligman's term for a state of helplessness of resignation in which people or animals learn that escape from something painful is impossible, and depression results
learned helplessness
the explanations people assign to their own and other's behavior
group of psychotic disorders involving major disturbances in perception, language, thought, emotion, and behavior; the individual withdraws from people and reality, often into a fantasy life of delusions and hallucinations
sensory perceptions that occur without an external stimulus
mistaken beliefs maintained in spite of strong evidence to the contrary
he believed the best way to understand personality was to study individual and arrange their personality traits into hierarchy
Gordon Allport
idea you are stuck on pleasures of other/ earlier stage; overindulge or frustration
pass out of stage and something happens that causes you to revert/regress back to earlier stage
mysterious actions were attributed to supernatural powers and possession
supernatural view
he believed madness was like any other sickness; natural event arising from natural causes; 4 humors
schoolteacher from Boston led nationwide campaign for humane treatment of mentally ill people
Dorothea Dix
movement of mental patients out of large hospitals- became a major goal of mental health care in the last half of the 20th century
amnesia, fugue, or multiple personalities resulting from avoidance of painful memories or situations
dissociated disorders
inflexible, maladaptive personality traits that cause significant impairment of social and occupation functioning
personality disorders
characterized by lack of conscious symptoms and causes- little respect for authority, lie, cheat, no guilt
antisocial personality disorder
characterized by mood instability and poor self- image
borderline personality disorder
treatment (Tx) of disorders through talking and other psychological methods
gain insight by recognizing/ understanding unconscious thoughts and emotions
people with problems are blocked in some way from reaching their full potential
humanistic therapy
active; get in touch with genuine feelings/ disown foreign ones- like Behavorist therapy but more active
Gestalt therapy
classical and operant conditioning principles to change behavior
behavior therapy
relies on learning principles to help change the way clients think
cognitive-behavior therapy
brief electrical shock to brain; used to relieve severe depression
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
destroy tissue in small regions of brain

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