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AJ Ch 10: Industrial Revolution


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Who improved the steam engine and developed a mechanical flour mill?
Oliver Evans (Delaware)
Who invented the cotton gin and devised the manufacturing method that produced interchangeable parts?
Eli Whitney
(from Massachusetts in 1793)
Who memorized English design for machines for cotton thread mill and duplicated them in the United States? He was the first industrial spy.
Samuel Slater
(from Rhode Island in 1790)
Who developed the factory system in a textile plant in Waltham, Massachusetts in 1814?
Francis Cabot
What was the name given to unmarried textile mill workers in Lowell, Massachusetts, (15-30 years old) who supervised company boarding houses, read books, wrote letters, etc.?
The Lowell Girls
What tax placed on imported goods made them more expensive than products made in the United States (and protected new American industries)?
Tariff of 1816
Name the bank (1816) that had power to establish national currency, make large loans to business and that strengthened the nation's economic independence.
Second Bank of the United States
Why did the Industrial Revolution begin in New England? (Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, New Hampshire)
Because New England offered ideal conditions for the development of factories
1. New England's soil is poor which made farming difficult; people could leave their farms to find work elsewhere
2. New England had rivers & streams to provide water-power for factories
3. It was close to the coal and iron from Pennsylvania
4. It had many shipping ports for transportation of goods from the South like cotton and cloth
5. It also had merchants with capital (money) that was important for developing machines and building industries
What was the Industrial Revolution?
The change from an agrarian (farming) society to one based on industry that began in Great Britain and spread to the United States around 1800.
What is "capital?"
money for investment
What is technology?
The application of scientific discoveries to practical use.
What is the cotton gin?
A machine that removed seeds from cotton fiber. "Gin" is short for the word "engine"
What is a "patent?"
a document that gives an inventor the sole legal right to an invention for a period of time.
What is "the factory system?"
A system that brings manufacturing steps together in one place to increase efficiency.
What are "interchangeable parts?"
Uniform pieces (parts) that can be made in large quantities to replace other identical pieces. (invented by Eli Whitney)
What was the "National Road?"
A road opened in 1818 from Baltimore, Maryland, to Vandalia, Illinois. When Ohio entered the Union, the new state asked the Federal Government to build a road to connect it to the East. (traveled from East to West; rivers North & South)
Who was Robert Fulton?
He developed a powerful steamboat in 1802 that ran up the Hudson River from New York City to Albany, NY) in 32 hours.
What was the "Clermont?"
Robert Fulton's steamboat (1807)
What were some advantages of steamboats?
1. they improved transportation of goods and passengers
2. shipping goods became cheaper and faster
3. they contributed to the growth of cities
What was DeWitt Clinton noted for?
He planned a link between New York and the Great Lakes region with a canal connecting Albany and Buffalo that helped inland trade
What is the "Erie Canal?"
a 363 mile canal between Albany and Buffalo (1825) that used locks (teams of mules or horses that hauled boats and barges that were later replaced by steam tugboats)
What was "Clinton's Ditch?"
That was what people called the Erie Canal. The canal's success lowered the cost of shipping goods and towns prospered. It also helped to united the country
What is the purpose of canal locks?
to raise and lower the boats from one elevation to another
Name some improvements in transportation in the early 1800's
1. steamboats
2. turnpikes
3. the National Road
4. canals
Where did early pioneers tend to settle?
in communities along great rivers with others from their home communities. They migrated as families.
Name states that were settled between 1791-1803
1. Vermont
2. Kentucky
3. Tennessee
4. Ohio
Name states settled between 1816-1821
1. Indiana
2. Illinois
3. Mississippi
4. Alabama
5. Missouri
What is a "census?"
an official count of a population
What is a "turnpike?"
A road that one must pay to use (the money is used to pay for the road)
What is a "canal?"
A canal is an artificial (man-made) waterway
What is a canal "lock?"
In a canal, a "lock" is an enclosure with gates at each end that is used in raising or lowering boats as they pass from level to level
Who was James Monroe?
James Monroe was the 5th President of the US elected in 1816 (a Republican). He was very popular and presided over a growing, prosperous nation
Describe the increase in population between 1790 and 1820
Between 1790 (there was a population of 4 million people) and 1820 (there was a population of 10 million people), there was a 150% increase in population
What is meant by the "Era of Good Feeling?"
The "Era of Good Feeling" was the absence of any major political differences
Who was John C. Calhoun?
John C. Calhoun was a planter from South Carolina. He was a Nationalist until 1820 when he became one of the foremost advocates of States' Rights and opposed high tariffs
Who was Daniel Webster?
Daniel Webster was a great orator (spokesman) from the region of Massachusetts/New Hampshire in both the House and the Senate. He favored the Tariff of 1816 because it protected northern industries from competition. He spoke in defense of the national as a whole.
Who said, "Liberty and union, now and forever, one and inseparable?"
Daniel Webster
Who was Henry Clay?
Henry Clay was a speaker of the House of Representatives (from Kentucky in 1811). He represented the interests of the Western States. He was known as a national leader who tried to resolve sectional disputes and bring conflicting interests together through compromises.
Who was known as the "Great Compromiser?"
Henry Clay
What was the Missouri Compromise?
In March 1820 the issue of new states being admitted to the union arose. Missouri was a slave state and Maine was a free state. The Missouri Compromise (Henry Clay) banned slavery in the remainder of the LA territory north of 36 30' parallel
What was the American System?
Policies devised by Henry Clay to stimulate growth of industry
List 3 parts of the American System:
1. protective tariff to stiumlate growth of American industries
2. a program of internal improvements (building roads and canals to stimulate trade)
3. a national bank to promote one currency throughout the nation and to lend money to build developing industries
List regional points of disagreement between national regions
1. slavery
2. need for tariffs
3. national bank
4. internal improvements
What is "sectionalism?"
loyalty to a region
What are "internal improvements?"
Federal projects such as canals and roads to develop the nation's transportation system
What did supporters of States' Rights do?
They defended the powers of the States over the power of the Federal Government
What are "States' Rights?"
rights and powers independent of the Federal Government that are reserved for the States by the Constitution; the belief that States' Rights supersede Federal rights and law
What was the Rush-Bagot Treaty?
In 1817 Britain and the United States agreed to set limits on the number fo naval vessels each could have on the Great Lakes. disarmament along an important part of the border between the US and British Canada.
Who was James Monroe's Secretary of State?
John Quincy Adams
What did the Convention of 1818 do?
It set the official boundaries between the United States and Canada at the 49th parallel and created a secure and demilitarized border (one without armed forces).
What did Andrew Jackson do in Spanish East Florida that caused the Spanish to demand that he be punished?
He ordered that Seminole raids on American Territory in Florida be stopped. Instead he captured 2 Spanish forts.
What did the Adams-Otis Treaty (1819)do?
In 1819 Spain gave East Florida to the United States and abandoned all claims to West Florida. The U.S. gave up claims to Spanish Texas and paid $5 million to American citizens owed by Spain. The Western border was moved to the 42nd parallel.
Who was Father Hidalgo?
In 1810, he (also known as "El Grito" and "Dolores") led a rebellion against the Spanish government of Mexico. He called for racial equality and distribution of land. In 1821 Mexico gained independence from Spain.
Who was Simon Bolivar?
Simon Bolivar was the liberator who led the movement that won freedom for Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Bolivia and Equador.
Who was Jose de San Martin?
Jose de San Martin achieved independence for Chile and Peru
In 1824 what was left of Spain's empire in America?
Cuba, Puerto Rico and a few Caribbean Islands
What warning was issued in the Monroe Doctrine?
The Monroe Doctrine (December 2, 1823) warned that the United States would oppose any NEW European colonies in the Americas
What is "disarmament?"
The removal of weapons
What does "demilitarize" mean?
To remove armed forces from an area
What does "court martial" mean?
A Court martial means to try by a military court

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