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Biology Chapters 13 and 14


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The process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms biotch
The combonation of physical traits and behaviors that helps organisms survive and reproduce in their enviorment
Common Descent
Idea that species have descended from common ancestors
process that enables organisms to become better suited to their enviorments.
the preserved remains of ancient organisms
Absolute Dating
method of measuring rates of decay of radioactive materials to determine how long ago an event occured or an organism lived.
Organism at an early stage of development.
Interval of time in a geologic time scale.
Largest interval of time in a geologic time scale.
Preserved remains of evidence of an ancient organism.
Fossil Record
Collection of fossils that represents the preserved collective history of the Earths organisms.
Geological Time Scale
Record of the history of life determined by the positions of layers of rock.
Half Life
Length of time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay.
Description of choromosomes that occur in pairs; having a corresponding structure.
Interval in a geologic time scale that is composed of epochs.
Radioactive Element
Unstable element that decays into a stable element at a steady rate.
Relative Dating
Technique used to determine the age of fossils by comparing them with other fossils in different layers of rock.
Sedimentary Rock
Rock that forms when grains of eroded rock and other materials are carried to the bottom of a body of water and build up under the pressure into layers.
Vestigial Organ
Structure that serves no useful purpose or function in an organism.
*still have to find out*
Adaptive Radiation
Process, also known as divergent evolution, in which one species gives rise to many species that appear different externally but are similar internally.
Analogous Structures
Structures that are similar in apperance and structure but have different origins and usually different internal structures.
Artificial Selection
Technique in which the intervention of humans allows only selected organisms to produce offspring.
Convergent Evolution
Phenomenom in which adaptive radiations among different organisms produce species that are similar in apperance and behavior; opposite of divergent evolution.
Divergent Evolution
Pattern of evolution, also known as adaptive radiation, in which one species gives rise to many species that appear different externallu but are similar internally.
State in which no net change occurs.
Gene Pool
Common group of genes shared by members of a population
Theory that evolutionary change occurs slowly and gradually.
Mass Extinction
Phenomenom in which many species suddenly vanish
Natural Selection
Process in nature that results in the most fit organisms producing offspring.
Combination of an organisms habitat and it's role in that habitat.
Collection of individuals of the same species in a given area whose members can breed with one another.
Puncuated Equilbria
Pattern of long stable periods interupted by brief periods of change.
Relative Frequency
Number of times an event (allele) occurs compared with the number of times another event (other alleles for the same gene) occurs.
Reproductive Isolation
Seperation of populations so that they do not interbreed to produce fertile off-spring.

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