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AP Mod Vocab Detente-Lusitania


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Reference to the period of relaxation or thaw in relations b/w superpowers during Krushchev's rule in the SU
Idea, acc. to Karl Marx, that change & develpmnt in history result from conflict b/w social classes. Economic forces impel humans to behave in socially determined ways
Dialectical materialism
1st European to reach s'ern tip of Africa
Bartholomew Diaz
One author of the Encyclopedia
Denis Diderot
Radical groups in England in 1650s who called for abolition of private ownership & extension of franchise
Diggers & Levellers
5-man executive committee that ruled France in its own interests as a republic after Robespierre's execution & prior to Napoleon's coming to power
Leader of Brit Tory Party who engineered Reform Bill of 1867, which extended the franchise to working class
Benjamin Disraeli
Belief that monarchy's power derives from God & represents Him on Earth
Divine Right Monarchy
Manufacture of goods in household, production system that gave way to factory system
Domestic System
Battleship w/increased speed & power over convent'al warships, devlpd by Germany & GB to increase naval arsenals
French & Jewish army captn unfairly convicted of espionage in case that lasted from 1894-1906
Alfred Dreyfus
1867 compromise b/w Germans of Austria-Bohemia & Magyars of Germany to resolve nationalities problem by creating empire of Austria & Kingdom of Hungary, w/common ministry for finance, foreign affairs, & war
Dual Monarchy
Russian nat'l legislature
Gov't chartered joint-stock compny organized 1602 controlled spice trades in East Indies
Dutch East India Co
Edict of Henry IV that granted Huguenots rights of public worship & religious toleration in France
Edict of Nantes
Protestant ruler of England, helped stabilize religious tensions by subordinating theological issues to political considerations
Elizabeth I
imperial law that abolished serfdom in Russia, freed the peasants (on paper); collectively responsible for redemption payments to gov't
Emancipation Edict
Carefully-edited dispatch by Bismarch to the French ambassador that appeared to be insulting....
Ems telegram
Article 48 of Weimar constitution, enabled Hitler to issue decrees carrying force of law
Enabling Act
Before both world wars, the policy of other European countries that, Germany claimed, prevented German expansion, denying it the right to acquire "living room"
Collaborator w/Karl Marx; textile factory owner, supplied Marx w/hard data for economic writings, notably Das Kapital
Friedrich Engels
intellectual rev'ution of 18th cent. in which philosophes stressed reason, natural law, progress in their criticism of prevailing social injustices
1904 "gentlemen's agreement" b/w France & Britain, establishing close understanding
Entente Cordial
French nat'l assembly summoned in 1789 to remedy financial crisis & correct abuses of ancien regime
Organization, begun on Jan 1, 1958, including France German Federal Republic Italy & Benelus nations...
European Economic Community
Association of W'ern European nations agreeing to favor each other in respect to tariffs....
European Free Trade Association
Label for widely different revolts against traditional philosophy stressing choice, freedom, decision & anguish, emerging strongly during WWII & after
Group of English socialists including George Bernard Shaw who advocated electoral victories, rather than violent revs, to bring about social change
Fabian Society
Limited children's & adolescents' workweek in textile factories in England
Factory Act
Political & economic methods of Mussolini in Italy. Based on fasces
German writer who believed German spirit was nobler & purer than that of other peoples
J.G. Fichte
Gov't established in France in Oct. 1958. 1st: 1792-1804, 2nd: 1848-1852, 3rd: 1870-1940....
Fifth Republic
Hitler's policy of virulent anti-Semitism, culminating in Holocaust....
Final Solution
Leading Utopian socialist who envisaged small communal societies in which men & women cooperated in agriculture & industry, abolishing private property & monogamous marriage
Charles Fourier
Wilson's peace plans after WWI calling for freedom of the seas, arms reduction, right of self-determination for ethnic groups
Fourteen Points
Prussian ruler who expanded territory by invading duchy of Silesia under Maria Theresa of Austria
Frederick the Great
Soldier's King who built strong Prussian army & infused military values into Prussian society
Frederick William
King of Prussia who promised & later reneged on his promises for constit'al reforms
Frederick William IV
Supporters of General de Gaulle refused to acknowledge French armistice 1940....
Free French
Economic theory or policy of absence of restrictions or tariffs on goods imported into a country...
Free trade
Organized body for scientific study, founded in 1600s
French Academy of Sciences
style in 17th century art & literature stressing discipline, balance & restraint & resembling arts in ancient world & Ren.
French classicism
Viennese psychoanalyst whose theory of human personality & sexual drives shocked Victorians
Sigmund Freud
Last aristocratic revolt against French monarch, specifically nobility-led riots against monarchy
Italian scientist, formulated terrestrial laws & modern law of inertia....
Leader of factory workers who assembled before czar's palace to petition him Jan 1905 (Bloody Sunday) for social & political reforms
Father Gapon
Soldier of fortune who amassed "red shirt" army to bring Naples & Sicily into unified Italy
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Leader of Xtian Democrats in Italy; committed to democracy & social reform
Alcide de Gasperi
1st president of French 5th Republic & former head of Free French movmt in WWII
Charles de Gaulle
British Liberal Party leader & prime min., chief rival of Disraeli....reforms in public education, civil service exams, secret balloting
William Gladstone
reference to political events of 1688-89 when James II abdicated throne to Will & Mary
Glorious Revolution
Panic & insecurity that struck French peasants in summer of 1789 led to widespread destruction of manor houses etc
Great Fear
Chief Min. under Louis Philippe; repressive policies led to rev. of 1848
Francois Guizot
Forced labor camps set up by Stalin for political discussions
Legal protection that prohibits imprisonment of subject w/o demonstrated cause
Habeas corpus
According to Hegel, social change results from conflict of opposite ideas. Thesis confronted by antithesis --> synthesis --> new thesis
Hegelian dialectic
Sponsor of voyages along West African coasts
Prince Henry the Navigator
Formerly Henry of Navarre
Henry IV
Forerunner of German Romanic movmt who believed in volksgeist (nat'l character)
J.G. Herder
Pres. of Weimar Germany, appointed Hitler chancellor
Paul von Hindenburg
Japanese city on which US dropped atomic bomb on Aug 6 1945
Nazi leader who came to power legally in Germany set up totalitarian dictatorshp....
Political theorist advocating absolute monarchy based on concept of anarchic state of nature
Thomas Hobbes
Alliance dreamed up by Alexander I of Russia by which those in power were asked to rule under Xtian principles
Holy Alliance
Italian dynasty ruling independent state of Piedmont-Sardinia....
House of Savoy
French Calvinists
Recovery & study of classical writings & authors
Author of An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding
David Hume
Attempt by students & workers to liberalize Communist regime & break off mil. alliance w/SU
Hungarian Revolt
acquisition & administration of colonial areas usually in interests of administering country
Financial demands placed on loser nations
Bill passed by German Reichstag that legitimated Bismarck's unconstitutional collection of taxes to update army
Indemnity Bill
List of books that Catholics were forbidden to read
emphasis on unique & creative personality
Papal pardon for remission of sins
Religious committee of 6 Roman Cardinals that tried heretics & punished guilty by imprisonment & execution
period of Cromwellian rule b/w Stuart monarchs Charles I & Charles II
dominant group in Nat'l Convention in 1793 who replaced the Girondins; headed by Robespierre
Stuart monarch who ignored constit'al principles & asserted divine right of kings
James I
Final Stuart ruler; forced to abdicate to William & Mary
James II
German existentialist seeing all people as equally coresponsible for all the terrors & injustices of the world
Karl Jaspers
French revisionsist socialist who was assassinated for his pacifist ideals
Jean Jaures
Also known as the society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola
Document signed by 15 countries that condemned & renounced war as instrument of nat'l policy
Kellogg-Briand Pact
Soviet leader denounced Stalin's rule & brought temporary thaw in superpowers' relations
Nikita Krushchev
Calivinist leader in 16th century Scotland
John Knox
independent & propertied russian farmer
Bismarck's anticlerical campaign to expel Jesuits from Germany and break off relations w/Vatican
British party that replaced Liberals in early twentieth century & championed greater social equality for the working classes through the efforts of labor unions
Labor Party
Economic concept of the Scottish philosophe Adam opposition to mercantilism the gov'ts role in economy was one of non-interference
Leader of revisionist socialists, hoped to achieve socialism through ballot rather than bullet
Ferdinand Lassalle
Pact that provided recognition by Mussolini of the Vatican & large sum of money to the church as well
Lateran Agreement
fixing of prices on bread & other essentials under Robespierre's rule
Law of the maximum
proposal included in Wilson's 14 Points to establish an international organization to settle disputes & avoid future wars
League of Nations
Bolshevik leader who made Marxist revolution in Nov 1917 & modified orthodox Marxism in doing so
V.I. Lenin
creation under Jacobins of citizen army w/support from young & old heralding emergence of modern warfare
Levee en masse
formerly Whig Party headed by Gladstone in 19th century
Liberal Party
Pact that secured frontier b/w Germany & France & Germany & Belgium
Locarno Treaty
Political theorist defended Glorious Revolution w/argument that all people are born w/certain natural rights to life, liberty & property
John Locke
Sun King, ruler of France who established....
Louis XIV
Nephew of Napoleon I; came to power as president of 2nd French Republic 1848
Louis Napoleon Bonaparte
British merchant liner carrying ammunition & passengers that was sunk by German U-boat

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