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Psychology : Test II


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short fibers that beranch out from the cell body and pick up incoming messages; highly specialized to do various tasks
Cell body
basically the meat of the cell where the nucleus, DNA, and everything else is found
single long fiber extending from the cell body; it carries outgoing messages
Myelin sheath
white fatty covering found on most cells; its purpose is to insulate the neuron so the action potential is faster
Gilial cells (support cells)
cells that form the myelin sheath, they insulate and support neurons by holding them together, removng waste products, and preventing harmful substances from passing from the bloodstream
electrically charged molecules found outside and inside the neuron
Resting potential
electrical charge across a neuron membrane due to excess positive ions concentrated on the outside and negative inos on the inside
the condition of a neuron when th einside is negatively charged realtive to the outside; for example, when the neuron is at rest
Action Potential
the firing of a nerve cell
-when sodium ions continuously flow in to the neuron action potential is created
Graded Potential
a shift in the electrical charge in a tiny area of a neuron
Threshold of Excitation
the level of an impulse must exceed to cause a neuron to fire
Absolute Refractory Period
the length of time after an action potential when another action potential cannot begin
Relative Refractory Period
a period after firing when a neuron is returning to its normal polarized state and will fire again only if the incoming message is much stronger than usual
All Or None Law
priniciple that the action potential in a neuron does not vary in strength, the neuron either fires at full strength or not at all
Termianl Button or Synaptic knob
structure at the end of an axon terminal branch
Synaptic Space
the gap between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of the next neuron
the area composed of the axon terminal of one neuron, the synaptic space, and the dendrite or cell body of the next neuron
Synaptic Vesicle
tiny sac in a terminal button that releases chemicals into the synapse
chemicals released by the synaptic vesicles that travel across the synaptic space and affect adjacent neurons
receptor sites
a location on a receptor neuron into which a specific neurotransmitter fits like a key
the ability of the brain to change in response to experience
cerebral cortex
the outer surface of the two cerebral hemispheres that regulate most complex behavior
forebrain region that relays and translates incoming messages from the sense receptors
forebrain region that governs motivation and emotional responses
structure in the hindbrain that contains certain reflexes and coordinates the body's movement
part of the hindbrain that connects the cerebral cortex at the top of the brain to the cerebellum
part of the hindbrain that controls such functions as breathing heart rate and blood pressure
frontal lobe
part of the cerebral cortex responsible for voluntary movement;it is also important for attention, goal-directed behavior and appropriate emotional experiences
parietal lobe
part of the cerebral cortex that receives sensory information from throughout the body
occipital lobe
part of the cerebral hemisphere that receives and interprets visual information
temporal lobe
part of the cerebral hemisphere that helps regulate hearing, balance and equilibrium, and certain emotions and motivation
corpus callosum
a thick band of nerve fibers connecting the left and right cerebral cortices and enabling them to cooperate in their functioning
reticular formation
network of neurons in the hindbrain, the midbrain, and part of the forebrain whose primary function is to alert and arouse the higher parts of the brain
The Limbic System
ring of structures that play a role in learning and emotional behavior
The Spinal Cord
complex cable of neurons that run down the spine, connecting the brain to most of the rest of the body
regulates the stress response and is involved with emotional behavior
analysis and problem solving take place here ?
cerebral cortex
The Somatic Nervous System
connects the brain to the skeletal muscles
The Autonomic Nervous System
connects brain to essential functions (i.e. breathing, heart rate, glands)
Parasympathetic Nervous System
branch of the autonomic nervous system that calms and relaxes the body
Sympathetic Nervous System
branch of the autonomic nervous system that prepares the body for quick action in an emergency
pituitary gland
gland located on the underside of the brain, it produces the largest number of the body's hormones`
thyroid gland
endocrine gland located below the voice box that produces the hormone thyroxin which is responsible for metabolism
parathyroid gland
four tiny glands embedded in the thyroids that secrete parathyroxin controls and balabces levels of calcium in the blood and has a direct effect on the exicitability of the nervous system
pineal gland
gland located roughly in the center of the brain that appears to regulate activity levels over the course of the day has a lot to do with melatonin
organ lying between the stomach and small intestine that secretes insulin and glycagon to regulate blood sugar levels
the reproductive glands-testes in males, ovaries in females
adrenal glands
two endocrine glands located just above the kidneys that affect the body's reaction to stress

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