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Dermatology Buzzwords and Associations


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Acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, neutrophils, hypogranulosis
Sebum, follicular infundibulum, lymphocytic infiltrate
Acne vulgaris
Wickham's striae
Lichen planus
Association with hepatitis C
Lichen planus
Band-like infiltrate of lymphocytes and histiocytes at dermal-epidermal junction
Lichen planus
Acanthosis with saw-toothing
Lichen planus
Wedge-shaped hypergranulosis, hyperkeratosis (without parakeratosis)
Lichen planus
Prevalent in HIV and Parkinson's disease
Seborrheic dermatitis
Cradle cap
Seborrheic dermatitis
Spongiosis around follicular openings, focal parakeratosis, mild-moderate acanthosis
Seborrheic dermatitis
Possible associations with sebum, Malassezia furfur
Seborrheic dermatitis
Spongiotic dermatitis with variable parakeratosis and acanthosis; eosinophilic infiltrate
Atopic dermatitis (eczema)
Elevated IgE levels
Atopic dermatitis (eczema)
Post-infectious; associated with HSV-1
Erythema multiforme minor
Targetoid lesion on extensor aspects of extremities
Erythema multiforme minor
Usually drug-induced (sulfa drugs, NSAIDs)
Erythema multiforme major (Stevens-Johnson syndrome, Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis)
Interface dermatitis with single necrotic keratinocytes
Erythema multiforme major
Split in lamina lucida of basement membrane on EM
Bullous pemphigoid
Subepidermal blister with no keratinocyte necrosis
Bullous pemphigoid
Linear IgG and C3 deposition along dermal-epidermal junction
Bullous pemphigoid
Positive Nikolsky sign
Pemphigus vulgaris
Autoantibodies against desmoglein III
Pemphigus vulgaris
Acantholysis with suprabasilar split
Pemphigus vulgaris
Tombstoning of basal keratinocytes
Pemphigus vulgaris
IgG and C3 in intercellular staining pattern
Pemphigus vulgaris
Koilocytic changes (intracellular clearing, prominent keratohyaline granules)
Verruca vulgaris
Verrucous epidermal hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis
Verruca vulgaris
Caused by Poxvirus
Molluscum contagiosum
Cup-like epidermal hyperplasia
Molluscum contagiosum
Epidermal necrosis with inflammation and balloon cells
Herpes simplex (HSV-1, HSV-2)
"Dew drops on rose petals" lesion
Varicella (chickenpox)
Grouped vesicles in dermatomal distribution
Zoster (shingles)
Positive Auspitz sign (punctate bleeding spots upon peeling off of scale)
Koplik's spots
Measles (paramyxovirus)
Prodrome consisting of cough, coryza, conjunctivitis
Measles (paramyxovirus)
Associated with hydrops fetalis
Parvovirus B19 infection (Fifth disease/erythema infectiosum)
May induce aplastic crisis in individuals with sickle cell disease
Parvovirus B19 infection (Fifth disease/erythema infectiosum)
Cytopathogenic effect with multinucleated giant cells
Measles, herpesviruses
Complications include SSPE, bacterial superinfection, pneumonia, otitis media, croup, encephalitis
Measles (paramyxovirus)
Congenital syndrome results in cataracts, heart defects, neurologic defects
Rubella (togavirus)
Slapped cheek rash
Parvovirus B19 infection (Fifth disease/erythema infectiosum)
Hand-foot-mouth disease
Coxsackie virus/enterovirus
Syncytia formation in culture; hemadsorbing
Mumps (paramyxovirus)
Superficial disease of epidermis; honey-like exudate with black crust
Staphylococcus aureus
Cellulitis related to handling fresh fish
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
Cellulitis related to freshwater exposure
Aeromonas hydrophila
Cellulitis related to ingestion of raw oysters in patients with liver disease
Vibrio vulnificus
Necrotizing fasciitis type II
Streptococcus pyogenes (occasionally MRSA)
Necrotizing fasciitis type I (Fournier's gangrene)
Mixed process (anaerobes)
Gas gangrene
Clostridium perfringens
Well-circumscribed brown macule; basal hyperpigmentation; acanthosis with regular elongation of rete ridges
Lentigo simplex
Flat, deeply pigmented macule; nests of melanocytes at dermal-epidermal junction
Junctional melanocytic nevus
Well-circumscribed raised lesion with epidermal and dermal nests of melanocytes
Compound melanocytic nevus
Polypoid, flesh-colored lesion with dermal melanocyte nests and no epidermal component
Intraepidermal melanocytic nevus
No lateral growth phase; impossible to detect early; large atypical melanocytes invade dermis
Nodular melanoma
Tinea pedis, tinea cruris; anthropophilic dermatophyte
Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Epidermophyton floccosum
Tinea capitis; ectothrix; zoophilic
Microsporum canis
Tinea capitis; endothrix; more prevalent in individuals with curly hair; causes diffuse hair loss
Trichophyton tonsurans
Causative agent of tinea versicolor
Malassezia furfur
Spaghetti and meatballs appearance on KOH prep
Malassezia furfur
Intertrigo, diaper rash
Candida albicans
Reservoir = plants, wood
Sporothrix schenckii
Linear nodules spread by lymphatics
Sporotrichosis (Sporothrix schenckii)
Treatment is with potassium iodide (or itraconazole)
Sporotrichosis (Sporothrix schenckii)
Superficial linear burrows; nocturnal pruritus
Sarcoptes scabei (mange mite)
Vector for plague (Yersinia pestis)
Fleas (Pulex irritans)
Wriggling nodules; Central and South America
Dermatobia hominis (human botfy)
Premalignant condition that can evolve into squamous carcinoma in situ
Actinic keratosis
Cutaneous horn
Actinic keratosis
Variable acanthosis, budding of atypical keratinocytes; alternating hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis; solar elastosis
Actinic keratosis
Second most common form of skin cancer
Squamous cell carcinoma
Most common form of skin cancer
Basal cell carcinoma
Peripheral palisading of keratinocytes, mucinous tumor stroma, cleft formation
Basal cell carcinoma
Mutations in patched gene
Basal cell carcinoma
T cell (CD4) lymphoma of skin
Mycosis fungoides
Erythroderma/red man syndrome
Mycosis fungoides
Hyperconvoluted and hyperchromatic nuclear membranes
Mycosis fungoides (Sezary cells)
Sezary cells, epidermotropism, Pautrier's microabscesses
Mycosis fungoides
Fried egg appearance on EM
Reye's syndrome
Varicella zoster virus (VZV)
Kaposi's sarcoma
Neonatal herpes
Herpes labialis
Herpes genitalis
Roseola infantum
HPV protein that degrades p53
HPV protein that inactivates RB
HPV protein that regulates E6 and E7 and is disrupted during linearization/integration into host genome
HPV protein that decreases EGF receptor turnover
Cause of warts on hands and feet
HPV types 1 and 2
Related to cervical cancer
HPV types 16 and 18
Related to benign genital disease (e.g., condyloma acuminatum)
HPV types 6 and 11
Koilocytosis is pathognomonic
HPV infection
Inflammatory tinea pedis
Trichophyton mentagrophytes
Reiter's syndrome
Chlamydia trachomatis
Strong causal association with PID, postabortive fever, postpartum fever
Mycoplasma hominis
Main causes of PID
Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Pruritic or malodorous frothy vaginal discharge; colpitis maculae; vaginal wall inflammation
Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas vaginalis)
Single, painless chancre with indurated edge and clean base
Syphilis (Treponema pallidum)
Multiple chancres with marked tenderness; soft edges and clean base
Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)
Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction
Homogenous, adherent vaginal discharge with bubbles
Bacterial vaginosis (Gardnerella vaginalis)
Positive amine whiff test
Bacterial vaginosis (Gardnerella vaginalis)
Beefy red protuberant lesion; kissing lesions
Donovanosis (Calymmatobacterium granulomatis)

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