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Journalism 3950 Exam 1


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Look at the world through a male perspective.
Interval Measurement Scale
equal distances between each point, these scales can have pos and neg values.
Likert Scale
Identify a persons beliefs, attitudes or feelings toward an object
Semantic Differential Scale
Measures meanings people give to a specific stimulus
Ratio Measurement Scale
A true zero point where the variable being measured ceases to exist. example is age, you can't be zero age
Factor Analysis
determines if a concept is uni or multidimensional.
Ask people to comment on themselves
Ask people to provide information about themselves or others in a written form
Directive Questionnaires and Interviews
Use predetermined questions
Interview Schedule
A list of questions that guide an interview.
Inverted funnel question format.
Begins with closed specific questions and goes to broader open questions
Question order effects
Occur when responses to earlier questions influence how people respond to later questions.
Fatigue Effect
Respondents pay less attention to questions near the end of a questionnaire as they are tired.
Inspection and interpretation of behavioral
Coding Schemes
Its a Classificaiton systems. It describe the nature or frequency of the behaviors.
Internal Validity
The accuracy of conclusions drawn from a particular research study.
External Validity
Is the generalizability of findings, or can conclusions from a particular study be applied to other people/text, places, etc.
Measurement Reliability
Measuring something in a consistent and stable manner.
Reliability Coefficient
numberical indicator that tells the percentage of time a measurement is reliable or free from error..70 or greater are reliable.
Internal Consistency
two measurements give the same results.(ex if you fall from 1000 feet and survive you should be able to fall from a 1000 feet anywhere and survive)
Criterion-Related Validity
measurement technique relates to another instrument that was valid.
Sleeper Effect
An effect that is not immediately apparent but becomes evidenced over the course of time.
Hawthrone Effect
People are aware they are being studied and behave differently
Statistical Regression
Tendency for individuals selected on basis of extreme scores to behave less atypically later.
Researcher Unintentional Expectancy Effect
When researchers influence participants responses by inadvertently letting them know the behavior they desire.
Involves studying every member of a population
Random Sampling
Each person has equal chance of being selected.
Systematic Sample
Chooses every nth person after starting at a random point.
Stratified Sample
Categorizes a population with respect to a characteristic (stratificaiton variable) that the researcher thinks is important
Convenience Sample
Selected on basis of availability
Network Sample
Respondents refer researcher to other respondents (snowball)
Ecological Validity
Research that describes what actually occurs in real-life circumstances.
Conducting a study that repeats a previous study.
Moral principles and recognized rules of conduct regarding a particular class of human action.
A professor is guaranteed a lifetime faculty appointment.
Academic Freedom
The ability to teach and research topics that professors consider to be important.
IRB - Institutional Review Board
Group set up to monitor research proposals and decide if they are ethical.
Voluntary Informed Consent
Research participants voluntarily agree to participate only after they have been fully informed about the study.
Implied Consent
Completion is taken as an indication of consent.
When research participants may have acquired negative information about themselves as a result of a study.
Convincing participants that they have been decieved and attempting to eliminate any negative effects the deception might have had.
When researchers cannot connect responses to the individuals who provided them.
When researchers know who said what, but promise not to reveal that information publicly.
Assertions or Conclusions
Connects Claims and Evidence
The form of a disciplined inquiry that involves studying something in a planned manner and reporting it so other inquirers can potentially replicate the process if they choose. Or Questioning and testing what we know or don't know.
Proprietary Research
Research just for you or your boss, not to be shared
Scholarly Research
Research that can be shared
Social or Human Sciences
Like Journalism applied to Human Behavior
Positivist Paradigm
Singular in Nature and Objective


Value-free/ Unbiased


Formal/Impersonal Voice
Naturalist Paradigm
Multiple in Nature/Intersubjective




Informal/Personal Voice
Refers to the processes by which verbal and nonverbal messages are used to create and share meaning.
Applied Research
Not to be used as general research
Basic Research
Testing Theory: A generalization about a phenomenon.
A concept that can have two or more values
Independent Variable
Is the one that is thought to influence the dependent variable.
Dependent Variable
Is influenced by the independent variable.
Ordered Variable
Can be assigned numerical values (age, weight, etc.)
Nominal Variable
Can be classified in terms of type (gender, race, etc.)
A tentative answer about the nature of the relationship between variables.
Nondirectional Hypothesis
Does not specify the nature of the relationship of the variables.
Interaction Effects
Effects caused by multiple independent variables.
Primary Research Report
The first reporting of a study by the person who actually conducted the study.
Secondary Research Report
Report of a research report by someone other than the person who actually conducted the study.
Meta-Analytic Study
Summarizes alot of studies
Identifying and determining how to measure the observable characteristics of whatever concepts or variables researchers wish to study.
Conceptual Definition
Decribes what a concept means by relating it to other abstract concepts (ex dictionary def)
Operational Definition
Describes a concept in terms of its observable and measurable characteristics or behaviors by specifying how the concept can be observed in actual practice. (How can you measure the variable)
Conceptual Fit
Strong linkage between conceptual and operational definitions.
Is the process of determining the existence, characteristics, size and/or quantity of changes or differences in a variable through systematic recording and organization of the researcher's observation.
Qualitative Measurement
Observations that do not require measurements and numbers
Quantitative Measurement
Measurements that include numbers.
Studing something in multiple ways with a single study
Measurement Scale
A specific scheme for assigning numbers or symbols to designate characteristics of a variable.
Nominal Measurement Scale
Classify a variable into different categories
Mutually Exclusive
An individual can only be in one testing
Ordinal Measurement Scale
Involve nominal variables that are ranked in order along some dimension.
Ipsative Scale
A particular rank can only be used once.

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