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Quiz 4


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2 aspects of Qualitative/interpretive

Case studies, especially for "unique" circumstances

Grounded theory 

3 aspects of experimental and quasi-experimental designs

Involve manipulation (IV)

May involve randomization

May involve inclusion, exclusion, and statistical controls 

3 types of explanatory designs  

1.  Cross sectional and longitudinal designs

2.  Experimental and quasi-experimental designs

3.  Qualitative/Interpretive 

4 aspects of cross sectional and longitudinal designs

1.  involve no manipulation

2.  involve no randomization

3.  Use inclusion, exclusion, and statistacal controls

4.  Often IVs are considered predictive rather than causal 

4 items of research reactivity

Demand characteristics

Experimenter bias

Novelty & disruption effects

Placebo effects 

4 methods of control

1.  Manipulation of the independent variables

2.  Elimination or inclusion of extraneous variables

3.  Statistical control through multivariate analyses

4.  Randomization 

4 parts of an empirical article
  1. Intro
  2. Methodology
  3. Results
  4. Discussion

Inferring causality:  3 conditions must be met


1.  The proposed cause must precede the proposed effect in time

2.  There must be a statistical association between independent and dependent variables

3.  The relationship between the IV & DV must not be spurious--explai


Brief summary of the article

--includes major findings



It isn't clear that the independent variable preceded the dependent variable in time

 The direction of the change is unclear

Causal inference allows one to determine
that a change or variation in the dependent variable was produced (or caused) by the independent variable and not something else
Diffusion/treatment imitation
The observed change may result from communication between members of experiment and control/comparison groups in a study
Experimental attrition or mortality
Participants who complete a study may be different than those who drop out during the course of the study
Explanatory research seeks to explain
Changes in dependent variables by attributing these changes to the influence of independent variables
External validity 

The extent to which study findings can be generalized:

representativeness of study sample, settings, and procedures

External validity
the extent to whcih the causal relationship depicted in a study can be generalized beyond the study conditions
External events that correspond in time with the introduction/manipulation of the IV and confound the results
Instrumentation/instrumentation changes
The outcome of the dependent variable may be the result of measurement error (i.e. reliability and validity issues)
Internal validity  
The confidence we have that the results of a study accurately depict whether one variable is or is not a cause of another
Introduction (4 functions)

Summarizes the literature in the area of research; Provides a background to the problem/scope of the problem; Provides objectives and rationale for the study; Conveys the importance of the study; Shows how the study is connected to and will build upon

Maturation/Passage of Time
The change in the dependent variable is a result of natural growth & development, rather than the stimulus of the IV.
Methodology includes:


Operational definitions of variables

Standardized measures 

Novelty and disruption effects
The observed change may be the result of participation in a research study or a new program
Represents the observation
Random assignment of subjects into groups

No discussion usually; simply statistic reporting

Is it statistically significant? 

Selection bias
Differences between 2 or more groups may be due to the way in which they were selected, rather than from the independent variable stimulus
Statistical regression
When initial measurements of the dependent variable are extremely high or low, it is likely that they will regress towards the mean
The process of testing influences the way in which respondents perform on subsequent measures of the DV
The process of controll
In explanatory studies, we try to rule out alternative explanations through a process of CONTROL

Represents the experimental stimulus (intervention/IV)

You can have more than one stimulus 

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