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week 12 soc final review


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what are the sociological definitions of deviance and crime
deviance= only defined in contrast to normal, deviant behavior transgresses social norms.(culturally specific)

crime= form of deviance that occurs when you transgress cultural norms (laws)
what are the 2 ways in which society attempts to control deviant behavior
informal-(friends, other people) shamming, stigmatized

formal-(jails, a fire, mental institute) institutional sanctions
what are the 3 dimensions of deviance used in sociologist John Hagan's classification system severe are the sanctions against the act
2. how harmful is the act
3. degree of public agreement that the act is deviant
what are the 4 types of deviance from those dimensions diversions-not harshly punished, mostly harmless, some ppl bothered deviation-usually punished, little more harmful, more ppl agree act is bad
3.conflict crime-crimes defined by state, punishable, but disagree about if harmful
4.consenus crimes-punished severly, considered harmful, majority feel act is bad
what is the structural functionalist approach to studying deviance
deviance is functional
what is the symbolic interactionist approach to studying deviance
deviance is created thru social interaction. deviant if society thinks you are deviant..relativism
whats is the social conflict approach to studying deviance
deviance is political
ex. how it affects class
what are the 2 aspects to the concept of social solidarity
-degree to which group members share beliefs and values

-how intense and frequent is their social interaction
what is moral panic
-form of social solidarity
-occurs when many people strongly believe some form of deviance posses a threat to everyone
what are the 4 functions of deviance according to durkheim
1.affirms shared values
2.clarifies moral boundries
3.promotes social unity
4.facilitates social change
what, according to merton is the difference b/t conformists, innovators, ritualists, retreatists, and rebels
goals- things your supposed to want
means-ways supposed to achieve goals

conformist-accept goals and means
innovators-accept goals but reject means
ritualists-reject goals but accept means
retreatists-reject goals and means
rebels-seek new goals thru new means
what is labeling theory
behavior is deviant when other ppl label it deviant, if other ppl don't label it deviant, it isn't
how does goffman's concept of "stigma" relate to deviance
can change self concept, make more deviant than they were before
what are the 4 consequences for the criminal of the medicalization of deviant behavior
1.ppl who commit criminal acts can sometimes be judged not responsible for their acts be treated rather than punished
3. released into society if cured
4.subjected to treatments of al kinds against their will
what are 3 arguments supporting the conflict theory of deviance disadvantage reflected in criminality
2.racial patterns in criminality..reflect patterns of povery
3.low class ppl of all races more likely to face opposition? structures
what are the 4 justifications for incarcerating criminals in our society
1. rehabilitation
2.deterrance-discourage crime by making afraid
3.incapacitation-incarcerate or kill somebody so they can't reoffend
4.revenge-(closure, moral revenge)

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