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MIS lecture 9


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Order of implementation
input, process, output
- simplifies testing
- user interfaces developed early
- late implementation of outputs

Program development
time consuming
- 1/3-1/2 of project development schedule
- 1/3 of development labor

- required resources
- managerial complexity
- system quality
Construction and Test Plan
- development order
- testing order
- data used to test modules, module groups, programs, and subsystems
- acceptance criteria
- relevant personal assignments
Framework Development
When developing large OO systems, object frameworks or foundation classses are often constructed

Foundation classes are typically implmented first
- minimizes impact of errors and changes
- reused in many parts of the system and across applications
Source Code Control System (SCCS)
automated tool for tracking source code files and controlling changes to those files
mechanism to manage system changes

complex systems developed, installed, and maintained in series of versions to simplify testing and support
- alpha version (initial version- uses simulated software)
-beta version
-release version
-maintenance release
Quality Assurance
process of ensuring inforation system meets minimum quality standards

identificaiton of gaps or inconsistencies in system requirements

QA should be integrateed into the product

cost of fixing errors rise as project progresses
Technical Reviews
open design and construction process to input from other people

walthroughs and inspections
process of examining a product to determine if any defects eist

testing takes place following software construction

the process of testing begins early in the SDLC
Unit Testing
testing individual modules of code before integration with other software

Driver module used for testing
-sets values of input parameters
-calls module to be tested and passes parameters
-accepts return parameters
Integration Testing
tests the behavior of a group of modules

errors include:
- interface incompatibility
- incorrect parameter values
- run-time exceptions
- unexpected state interactions
System Testing
Tests the behavior of the entire system
- build and smoke test is performed daily to discover any problems
- performance test checks time-based requirements
- acceptance test is performed to determine whether system meets user requirements
process of changing from the old system to the new system
after development and testing, system must be put into operation
important considerations for installation
- costs of operating both systems in parallel
- detecting and correcting errors in new systems
- potentially disrupting the company and IS operations
- training personnel
Systems Development activities include
- systems analysis
- systems design
- programing
- testing
- conversion
- production
- maintenance
Parallel strategy
both the old system and its potential replacement are run together for a time until everyone is assured that the new one functions correctly
- safest conversion approach because old system can still be used as a backup
Direct Cutover strategy
repalces old system entirely with the new system on an appointed day
- risky and potentially more costly
Phased appraoch strategy
introduces the new system in stages, either by functions or by organizational units
descriptions of how an information system works from either a technical or end-user standpoint
after a new system is installed and conversion is complete, the system is said to be in production
modification of software after delivery to correct faults, improve performance, or adapt the product to a changed environment
training and user support
without training, error rates will be high

training considerations
- frequency and duration of use
- need to understand system's business context
- excisting computer skills
- number of users

training and support is ongoing
Upgrading computing infrastructure
infrastructure requires periodic updates
- software maintenance releases
- software version upgrades
- declining system performance

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