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1. The endangered species status of red wolf was once doubtful, because the red wolf was not considered as a species; instead it was thought to be a hybrid between the ______ and the ______.
__grey wolf___ and the ___coyote___.
2. The common biological definition proposed by Ernst Mayr states: Groups of actually or potentially ______ natural populations which are _____ isolated from other such groups.
___interbreeding___ ___reproductively___
3. The ______ definition was used by Linnaeus in his classification system that is based of the concept of ______ of species.
___typological species___
___fixative___ of species.
4. The four species definitions used in biological classification are: ______, ______, ______, and ___.
___typological species definition___, ___morphological species definition___, ___ecological species definition___, and ___biological species definition___.
5. The challenges in defining species include:

___modes of reproduction___
­­­___phenotypic variations___
___different types of organisms___
___ecological niches___
___fossils of extinct organisms___
6. Two most important considerations of the pluralistic species definition are to achieve _____ and _____.
___cohesion___ and ___parsimony___.
7. The three mechanisms of speciation are: ______ speciation, ______ speciation, ______ speciation.
___allopatric___ speciation, ___sympatric___ speciation, ___parapatric___ speciation.
8. Speciation is a multi-step process that takes place over many generations. The first step of mutation is when two populations become ______ isolated from each other. This prevents interbreeding and blocks ______.
___geographically___ ___gene flow___.
9. New traits occur through mutation; these traits will assume by the population through ______ and ______.
___natural selection___ and ___genetic drift___.
10. There are only two species of orangutans in the world, and they live in the tropical rain forest of ____ and _____.
___Sumatra___ and ___Borneo___.
11. The frequent type of speciation is known as ______ speciation, which is caused by ______, leading to the interruption of ______.
___allopatric___ speciation, ___geographical isolation___
___gene flow___.
12. There are two existing chimpanzees living in the ______ rain forests, one is the common chimpanzees. The other one is the ___.
___Africa___ ___bonobos___.
13. A long lasting ______ in Zaire 2 million years ago, forcing the ______ from the bonobo’s foraging area.
14. Africa was entirely covered by forest ______ years ago, until a global weather change caused by the formation of the ______ mountain range.
___8 million___ ___Himalayan___
15. Human footprints dated 3.5 million years in age were found in ______. They were shown to belong to _____.
___Homo afarensis___.

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