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biology exam 3


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what is huntington's disease?
strikes in middle age,
what is incomplete dominance?
when 2 alleles are "blended."
what is codominance?
when both alleles are expressed like in blood type.
what is pleiotropy?
when one allele has many effects.
what causes an exception to independent assortment?
Crossing over.
how do you know the likeliness of crossing over?
the farther apart the genes are on the same chromosome, the more likely they will cross over.
Which gender determines sex in humans?
Adenine always links with
Cytosine always links with
How many "rings" are in one line of DNA?
How many rings are in adenine?
How many rings are in thymine?
how many rings are in guanine?
when does dna replication occur?
in s phase
what is polymerase?
protein that helps duplicate dna
how does DNA translate to alleles? (3)
1. transcribe DNA info into RNA 2. translates RNA info into protein 3. protein has the trait.
how do you determine which protein gets made from dna/rna?
ratio is 3:1. for every 3 combo of nucleotides in an rna strand there is 1 amino acid
what are 2 definitions of evolution?
1. change of organisms over time 2. a change in the genetic make up of a population over time
Who was linnaeus?
Put organisms in specific subdivided groups. classified all living things.
who was Lamark?
thought animals changed overtime and that changes from the environment got passed down through generations. he coined the term biology.
Who was Covier?
he studied fossils. Father of paleontology. Realized that the oldest animals were strangest/most unfamiliar.
Who was Hutton?
coined "Gradualism." believed rivers carved canyons and earth quakes created mountains. but he was bad at writing
what is gradualism?
that large changes take place over a long period of time/
who was lyel?
read hutton's work and expanded with better writing. coined uniformitarianism.
what is uniformitarianism?
physics has been the same over time.
What did all the founders of evolution really conclude or insinuate?
that the earth is OLD.
what was darwin and how did he travel?
he was a pastor and traveled on a naval ship mapping out the coasts.
what was one of darwins first realizations?
that animals on different islands look different but slightly similar.
who was alfred russell wallace?
sent darwin his manuscript of ideas and they both presented their ideas to royal society.
what was the name of darwins book?
The Origin of Species
What are 3 aspects of natural selection?
1. organisms vary 2. all organisms produce more offspring than can survive 3. therefore only some survive.
what are 2 consequences of natural selection?
1. if environment change animals need to adapt or they will die out. 2. if environment does not change, you don't have to.
what are three pieces of evidence to evolution?
1. antibiotic resistance. 2. isecticide resistance 3. fossil records
what is comparative anatomy?
there are similar structures in organisms that are closely related.
what is convergent evolution?
animals not closely related have similar structures due to similar environments. i.e. sharks, dolphins, fish
what is a homologous structure?
structures with a common origin but used for different things
what are analogous structures?
structures that look similar but have different origins.
what is embryology?
the idea that embryos show common ancestors.
what is biochemistry?
about DNA. That similar species/related organisms have DNA that is similar.
what is biogeography?
what darwin noticed. the closer different animals physically are, the more similar they are. the farther apart they are the more different.
what is artificial selection?
when humans or others breed organisms and decide which ones are allowed to produce.
what is the hardy weinburg equation?
using hardy weinburg how can you figure the probability of homozygous recessive? q^2
What is probability of homozygous dominant? p^2
What is the probability of heterozygote?
why do we use the hardy weinburg equation if it only works in specific situations?
because the situations take a long time to happen.
What 5 things are needed for hardy weinburg equation to work?
1. large population 2. no movement of gene in or out of population 3. no mutations 4. random matinng...changing mates 5. no natural selection
Where do differences in alleles come from
why are mutations important?
becuase you need variations to figure out what works and doesn't.
what is speciation?
when one animal transforms into two different animals
what really defines a species?
organisms able to breed with eachother and create viable offspring.
what 4 things prevent different species from breeding?
1. habitat (cannot survive in each others habitats.) 2. different kinds of behaviors 3. temporal - if active during night or day 4. mechanical - reproductive parts not fit with each other
how do species change into two different?
if the population is divided, needs to adapt to different conditions.
what is allopatric speciation?
when a species split because in different locations
what is sympatric speciation?
when species split living in the same place
why does biogeography happen?
because of storms and hurricanes and such.
what is taxonomy?
study of classifying and naming organisms.
what are the different sub groups used to name organisms? (7)
1. Kingdom 2. Phylum 3. Class 4. Order 5. Family 6. genus 7. species
the KPCOFGS classification can be supplemented with what? (3)
super- sub- infra-
What is the KPCOFGS name for humans?
Animalia, chordata, mammalia, primates, hominidae, homo, sapiens
what is the only objective category of KPCOFGS?
What are rules about writing scientific names?
1. Include Genus and species 2. Genus is capitalized, species is lowercase 3. both are underlines or italicized.
how many kingdoms are there per se?
what is epistasis?
when one allele controls the expression of another
a new molecule of dna is always made from
5' to 3'
during replication, dna fragments are bound together by
DNA ligase
making mRNA from DNA starts at the
the excess its of mRNA are known as
anticodons are found in
to make a polypeptide, mRNA attaches to
sickle cell anemia is caused by a
base substitution
an enzyme that can convert rna to dna is
reverse transcriptase
bacteria can spread genetic info to another bacteria using
a plasmid
triplets of nucleotides that add up to an amino acid are called
how is RNA made differently than DNA?
only one strand is made and u is substituted for t
RNA starts and ends where?
starts: promoter ends: terminator
RNA that connects to DNA is called
mRNA or messenger RNA
what connects to mRNA?
what does tRNA do?
fits into appropriate triplet (codon) and drags an amino acid with it.
what helps the process of going from mRNA to proteins?
what are ribosomes made up of?
proteins and bits/pieces of rRNA
three steps to making polypeptides are
1. codon recognition - triplet is recognized. appropriate tRNA is found and placed into A site of ribosome right next to P site 2. peptide bond is formed between polypeptide attached to tRNA in P slot and amino acid attached to tRNA in A slot. 3. tRNA in P slot moves to e slot and then leaves while the tRNA in A spot moves to P.
mutations can be due to:
base substitutions, deletions, additions
over all what does HIV do?
has an enzyme that transcribes RNA to DNA with reverse transcriptase. Attacks immune cells.

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