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criminology test 2


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shaming theory
type of label theory to shame someone is to stigmatize can lead to deviant behavior unless there is a reintegration component public humiliation is ok but must actively reintegrate
conflict theory
cultural conflict: sheldon distinguishes between crime norms and conduct norms crime norms: rules laws, reflect dominant interests in community conduct norms: values further a group is from dominance (poor minority) conduct norms are more likely to conflict with crime norms
2 types of conflict theory
status politics marxism
status politics
pluralistic staus groups influence governmental decisions
monlithic 2 components: economy and class crime=product of class struggle
marxism theory of criminal behavior
2 types of crime in working class 1. crime of resistance: violate laws to bring about change 2. crimes of accomodation: alienation and impulsive 2 type of crimes by economic elite: crimes of economic and political domination
labeling theory
stats with distinction between primary and secondary deviance process of social interaction gender, ag,e race play a role self fulfilling prophecy: central to theory diversion: avoid stigmatization divert away from court system
primary deviance
any intial act of rule breaking activity
secondary deviance
subsequent to accepting deviant identity or label result of stigmatization
arrest trial conviction sentencing product of conflict rather than consensus criminal behavior is a result of inequality
critical theories focus on process of criminalization
focus on rule makers not rule breakers crime is conceptualized as a label applied to some by others no act is deviant, it is made deviant by how we define it and enforce it
self control theory
low self control is the cause of crime primarily results from childhood socialization lack tenacity and persistance external controls are secondary
techniques of nuetralization
denial of responsibilty denial of injury denial of a victim/personhood condemning the condemed appeal to a higher authority
ecological correlation
problem occurs when group rates are used to describe individual behavior using data at agregate level: makes generalizations about specific groups
practical critical action in marxist theory, such action is more important that theory most important factor in the struggle to replace capitalism with socialism
characteristics of critical criminology
crime is labeled attached to behavior more powerful groupds in society control this labeling process in order to protect their interests conflict model crime is often a rational response to inequitable conditions in capitalistic societies
basic assumptions of labeling theory
no act is intrinsically criminal criminal definitions are enforced in the interests of the powerful a pareson does not become a criminal by violation of the law but only be the designation of criminality by authorities act of getting caught beings the labeling process
critique of labeling theory
overly deterministic and denies individual responsibility violators of societal rules are not passive robots of societal reaction some acts are universally regarded as inrinsically wrong soceital reaction approach pays inadequate attention to the causes of the intial deviant act, alsmot as if to say that the social control agencies cause crime argument seems to suggest that labels are attached randomly offenders involved in serious crimes are more likely to be labeled
liberal feminists
predict an increase in femal crime as opportunites increase assume that as women assume more assertive positions in society, they would participate in more masculine activities including crime emphasis affirmative action focus on female victimization gender justice: court sentencing little attention to female criminal behavior
radical feminists
dominant approach major theme is patriarchy (male power and domination) it defines women as subjects with men having the right of control. sexism defines the value of women view male aggression and control of female sexuality as the basis of patriarchy and the subordination of women patriarchy-culprit of womens crime and victimiazation
liberation hypothesis
holds that racial discrimination in sentencing is significan primarily in less serious cases??? OR as women become more liberate the more criminal beahvior increases little support gender focus reject positivist model
left realists
accused by Marxist to be engaged in llberal co optation radical changes to implement policy driven by social justice
peace making
propse that crime can be eliminated once we establish peace and justice theological movmenet: transcendence themes are taken as matters of faith when suffering ends, the need for crime ends
post modernists
reject scienitific rationality science creates dominant narratives of crime all knowledge creates naratives and they are vaide best narratives are those free of domination and heirarchy argure for a plurality of interpretations of the law and an abandonment of standard theories of crime causation
marxism critique (capitalism and inequality= source of crime)
abandon science for ideology and are untrustwrothy as objective scholars operates on predicatble othodox lines legal order and capitalism are blamed for everything find evil in everything associated with the American state, legal, and economic system ignoring good laws all of the problems of justice are colapsed into the economic interest of classes followers are unwilling to test evaluate or objectively examine their theories

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