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Psychology - Ch. 2 Terms


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Neugarten's term referring to the fact that, because of changes in biological and social aging, chronological age has become an inadequate indicator of psychological development; thus its significance has lessened, along with the power of age norms to go
age-irrelevant society
socially defined standards or expectations of behavior
age norms
one of McCrae and Costa's five personality traits; represents the degree to which a person is compassionate, good-natured, cooperative, and motivated to avoid conflict
Kotre's term for the conception, delivery, and nursing of offspring
biological generativity
McCrae and Costa's trait representing self-discipline, organization, ambition, and achievement
views behavior as the result of a complex, reciprocal interaction between the individual's biogenetic characteristics and the sociohistoric environment; acknowledges the influence of both nature and nuture
contextual model
Levinson's term for a fundamental turning point in the life cycle, lasting about five years, during which one is terminating a major era and entering a succeeding one
cross-era transition
Kotre's term for generative acts that pass on the value system and meanings of a culture to the next generation
cultural generativity
a series of four 25-year segments of the life cycle in Levinson's model of development; each era has its own psychosocial qualities, though it contributes to and is integrated with the whole (the eras partly overlap)
developmental era
substage of the major developmental era in Levinson's model, usually lasting about five years; stable (structure-building) periods alternate with transitional (structure-changing) periods
developmental periods
an ability, skill, or responsibility that, if accomplished at the appropriate stage in life, contributes to future growth and happiness
developmental task
a relationship between two people who pay attention to or participate in each other's activities
the scientific study of organism-environment relationships
Bronfenbrenner's term for the scientific study of the progressive, mutual accommodation between an active, growing human being and the changing properties of the immediate settings in which the developing person lives, as this process is affected by rela
ecology of human development
basic to Erikson's theory of development; the personality develops as a composite of its parts, each of which emerges at a particular time in development, so that the parts give rise to the whole
epigenetic principle
Bronfenbrenner's term for a part of the ecological environment made up of settings in which individuals do not participate but that influence the microsystems in which they do participate
according to McCrae and Costa, one of the five basic personality traits; refers to preferences for social interaction and social activity
a sense that one is able to carry out generative behavior
felt capacity for generativity
Neugarten's term for the fact that the traditional periods in the life cycle are beginning to break down, as rates of biological development and social definitions of age change and age norms weaken, resulting in a blurring of age divisions and the creat
fluid life cycle
a sense of having achieved a generative goal
generative accomplishment
Erikson's term for a concern for future generations and the kind of legacy one will leave behind; stage 7 in his theory of psychosocial development
Jung's term for a process of self-discovery and self-development, marked by increasing introspection and the integration of polarities within the self, which begins about age 40
Butler's term for a normal and universal period of purposeful reminiscence prompted by impending death; the life review may enable the person to integrate life experiences into a meaningful whole, leading to resolution of conflict and acceptance
life review
Levinson's term for the overall pattern or design of a person's life, usually composed of two major areas of choice and commitment
life structure
Bronfenbrenner's term for a part of the ecological environment composed of the beliefs and values that govern how social groups are organized
views the individual as a tabula rasa, passively reacting to environmental influences; takes the nurture side of the nature-nurture debate
mechanistic model
Bronfenbrenner's term for a level of the ecological environment composed of relationships among settings in which the individual participates
Bronfenbrenner's term for the innermost level of the nested structures that make up the ecological environment -- the immediate setting containing the developing person and the objects and people with whom the individual interacts
an emerging life stage from 50 to 75 characterized by expanding options for productive activity
a major period of reassessment postulated by Levinson and others to occur around age 40 and precipitated by an increased awareness of mortality; one of the most controversial aspects of his model
midlife transition
one of the five traits in McCrae and Costa's model of personality development, it has to do with how likely an individual is to experience unpleasant, disturbing emotions and their corresponding thoughts and actions
a life event that happens either earlier or later than normally expected; more stressful than on -time events
off-time events
a life event that happens at about the expected time in the life cycle; less stressful than off-time events
on-time events
one of McCrae and Costa's personality traits; refers to an individual's receptiveness to new ideas and experience
a view that stresses the natural unfolding of behavior according to a genetic blueprint; stresses the nature side of the nature-nurture debate
organismic model
Kotre's term for generative acts involving the raising and guiding of children
parental generativity
the view that one must understand reality as it is subjectively perceived by the individual
according to McCrae and Costa, a dimension of individual differences in tendencies to show consistent patterns of thoughts, feelings, and actions
pyschological traits
in Erikson's theory, a turning point in development, when there is heightened vulnerability but also opportunity for growth(Erikson described eight crisis in the life cycle)
psychosocial crisis
Neugarten's term for an internalized social calendar, which tells us when in our lives we should be doing what
social age clock
a set of activities and relations expected of an individual who occupies a particular social position, and of others in relation to the individual
social role
the notion that all of us, at about the same time in our lives, experience the same events, problems, or challenges; emphasizes universal sequences of change
stage theory
the tendency for social change to occur more rapidly than social norms and structures can adjust
structural lag
Kotre's terms for acts of generativity that involve the teaching of skills to younger individuals
technical generativity

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