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Microbiology Final


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chemical substances that provoke the immune system
antigens (can be proteins- most common, carbs, lipids, nucleic acids)
domain or area on an antigen to which antibodies are directed; antigenic determinants
small molecules that bind to proteins to form an epitope; will not provoke immune system on their own
classes of antibodies
Ig= immunoglobulin
primary response
gamma globulin- secondary response, class of antibodies involved when you get a booster shot
tears, saliva, mother's milk
attached to mast cells, role in allergic responses
occurs on surface of memory cells
engulfs free virus, presents viral antigens on surface
T-Killer lymphocyte
interacts w/ macrophage via antibody/antigen interaction- T-killer cells multiply, move to lymphatic system and kill virally infected cells
memory cells
some macrophages will become memory cells and will respond if the virus is encountered again
B-cells (humoral response)
interact (Ab/Ag) with macrophage, clones of B-cells, get chemical message from T-helper lymphocyte to produce antibodies
T-helper lymphocyte
send chemical message to b-cells to make ; these are the cells affected by AIDS -> b-cells can't make antibodies
attachment of allergens on these cells results in the release of histamine
mast cells
Auto-immune disease- RNA complexes stimulate b-cells to make antibodies to the complexes (against own RNA)- complexes accumulate in skin and internal organs- tissue dammage, death
auto-immune disease- antibodies fromed against own IgG- immune complexes attache to cartilage in joint
rheumatoid arthritis
auto-immune disease- antibodies made against chemical groups on surface of pancreatic cells- cell mediated response to cells in pancreas
juvenile diabetes
autoimmune disease- antibodies to acetylcholine receptors on skeletal receptors made- lose motor nerve function
myasthenia gravis
autoimmune disease- antibodies made against CNS tissue- tissue dammage
multiple sclerosis
contact dermatitis
haptens combine with patient's own proteins to form a new epitope- immune response to altered protein- usually a localized reaction where contact occured- ex. poison ivy/oak, cosmetics, metals (Ni), cosmetics
antigen in tissue (important for transplantation)
major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
Why does mother not reject fetus (it is foreign tissue)?
sperm contains an antigenic signal that stimulates mother to make blocking antibodies which shield the fetus
Rh factor- what, what % Rh +
chemical group on red blood cells; 85% pop. Rh+
pathogen which causes strep throat
steptococcus pyogenes
type of hemolysis that takes place on blood agar when pathogenic strep is present
beta-hemolysis- complete destruction of blood cells (partial destruction is alpha, usually non-pathogenic)
complications of strep throat
otis media (ear infections), rheumatic fever (heart valves), acute glomerulonephritis (kidneys), septicemia (breaks down organ tissue)
other infections caused by streptococcus pyogenes
erysipeias (skin infections), childbirth fever, necrotizing fascitis (invasion of deep tissue, muscles, toxic shock and death- flesh eating bacteria)
pathogen which causes diphtheria
corynebacterium diphtheriae
what diphtheria toxin does
inhibits 80S ribosomes (shuts down protein synthesis), death from cardiac arrest
how diphtheria is spread
spread by individuals who have it in their throats, carriers; spread by mucous droplets from coughing and sneezing
Pertussis (whooping cough)- pathogen and where it attaches
bordatella pertussis (gram - rod), attaches to pili in throat cells
Bacterial meningitis- organism responsibly for most severe type
neisseria meningiditis (5% of pop. carriers)
Diagnosis of bacterial meningitis
spinal tap; look for gram - cocci
treatment and problem with that treatment
treated with antibiotics, problem because blood/brain barrier can prevent antibiotics from entering spinal column
Haemophilus influenzae, who, what
occurs in 80% of health individuals, serious in children 6 mo.- 6 yrs., can invade CNS to cause meningitis
class of viruses that cause colds
rhino viruses > 100 strains
TB- pathogen
mycobacterium tuberculosis, gram (+) rod; mycolic acid (wax) in cell wall
how organism is spread
inhalation of organism from an infected person
how organism acts in body
engulfed by phagocytes but can multiply in these cells and spread to other organ systems (ex. lymph)
test for TB in US
Mantoux skin test; tuberculin used, hypersensitivity of organism if patient has TB
treatment of TB
antibiotics, 2 given for at least 6 mo. (have to make sure people finish dose or surviving pathogens become resistant)
Pneumonia- organism that causes 80% of bacterial pneumonia
streptococcus pneumoniae
"walking pneumonia" (primary atypical pneumonia)- pathogen
mycoplasma pneumoniae (lacks cell wall, cannot be treated w/ penicillin)
Legionnaire's Disease- pathogen and where found
legionella pneumophilia- found in water towers, HVAC, shower heads, spray units in produce sections
Botulism- 3 main causes
72% - infants- given honey water
25%- home canning - baceterium is in soil
3%- cutaneous drug addicts
botulism- pathogen
clostridium botulinum
where found
spores in soil, sewage, fertilizers, intestines of animals, fish, birds
What does toxin do that is so dangerous?
it inhibits the release of acetyl choline form nerve synapse, causes flaccid paralysis, can die of resp. or cardiac arrest
staph food poisoning- most common type of food poisoning- pathogen (Toxin)
toxin produced by staphylococcus aureus
transmission of staph food poisoning
food handlers w/ abscesses and boils
where staph occurs on body in healthy individuals
skin and in nose
clostridial food poisoning- pathogen, where found
clostridium perfringens; found in protein rich foods like meats , poultry, beans- bulging cans usually contain clostridium perfringens, produces a lot of gas, can may explode
other problem caused by clostridium perfringens
gas gangrene
Typhoid fever- pathogen and transmission
salmonella typhi (most dangerous of salmonella); transmission by 5 F's- fingers, food, fleas, feces, fomites

(treated with antibiotics so no more "Typhoid Mary's")
Salmonella food poisoning- main foods involved
poultry (found in the intestinal tract of chickens) and eggs (and egg products)

most reported GI tract disease
E.Coli 0:157 H7- major outbreak, foods involved
Jack in the Box (hamburgers), also can occur in mayonnaise, juicues (unpasteurized apple juice), dry cured salami, alfalfa sprouts

can also occur in pools, petting zoos
Where does E. Coli 0:157 H7 occur?
intestinal tract of cows... cow manure
organism responsible for 80-90% of gastric ulcers, how it enters stomach
helicobacter; enters stomach on contaminated food, burrows into stomach wall through mucous lining to cause ulcer
treatment of ulcers
antibiotics- tetracycline, amoxicillin
Listeria monocytogenes- where it occurs, how transmitted
occurs in warm blooded animals (pets), transmitted by fecal contaimination
foods affected by listeria
soft cheeses, cold cuts, liver pastes, veggies, milk and milk products, poultry, sausage, hot dogs
Brucellosis- affect on cows and humans
brucella abortus (spontaneous abortion in cows), relapsing (Malta) fever in humans - can come from animal contact, contaiminated milk
most common in kids under 5, wheel-shaped under e- microscope, causes dehydration, fecal-oral route, diarrhea
Norwalk virus
shellfish may be a reservoir, recent problem on cruise ships, infects upper small intestine, infectious up to 3 weeks after epidemic, fecal-oral route
Hepatitis A, what, how you get it
infection of the liver; fecal-oral route; outbreaks from eating raw shellfish
Hepatitis B and C- how spread
both spread by tattooing needles, drug needles, piercing equip., razors, toothbrush
(B spread through sexual intercourse as well)
disease caused by Hep C
liver disease, causes liver cancer
Bacterial cystitis- infection of urinary bladder- pathogens
80-90% caused by E. Coli from patient's intestinal tract
5-10% Klebsiells, proteus
all gram (-)
urinary bladder infections from catheterization- 2 organisms responsible
p. aeruginosa (gram -), enterrococcus faecalis (gram +, from intestinal tract)
Candida Albicans
causes yeast infections, more prevalent when taking antibiotics that kill normal flora in tract, during pregnancy and while using birth control b/c those increase amount of glycogen which is a nutrient for candida
staphylococcal toxic shock- organism, outbreak
caused by toxin produced by staph aureus, certain kind of tampon allowed bacterium to grow
syphilis- organism, how seen
treponema pallidum (pale turning thread), can only be seen w/ dark field microscopy
3 stages of syphilis
1- ulcer appears at site of entry
2- skin rash, flu-like symptoms
3- can invade CNS!(can cause mental illness) soft gummy lesions calles gummas develop
when can antibiotics be used to treat syphilis?
only in stage 1 and 2
Chlamydia trachamonis (reporting)
most reported STD- referred to as silent b/c it occurs w/o obvious symptoms
Gonorrhoea- reporting, organism responsible
2nd most reported STD, caused by neisseria gonorrhoeae
besides venereal disease, neisseria gonorrhea can cause...
blindness in children
Clostridium tetani- where found
in the soil, in the intestines of animals (esp. horses)
toxin produced by clostridium tetani and what it does to body
toxin = tetanospasmin (2nd most deadly toxin), causes lock jaw (face 1st muscles affected) and prevents the relaxation of muscles
spread of clostridum tetani
tattooing needles, ear piercing, unsanitary cutting of umbilical cord in undeveloped countries (covered with dung)

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