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MEH Semester 2 Review


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Name the system of government in which rulers hold total/absolute power.
Absolutism; tied into the divine right of King’s theory b/c in the 17th century, it was thought that rulers received their power from God and were responsible to no one except God. This gave monarchs tremendous power.
What political philosopher claimed that any ungoverned society made human life “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short”?
Thomas Hobbes.
What political philosopher argued that before society was organized humans had no natural rights?
John Locke.
What English law granted Puritans, but not Catholics, the right of free public worship?
The Toleration Act of 1689
Name the court where Louis XIV distracted the nobles and royal princes to keep them out of politics.
Royal Court of Versailles.
What law recognized Catholicism as the official religion of France, but gave Huguenots the right to worship and enjoy all political privileges?
Edict of Nantes.
What was the invasion of England by William and Mary called?
Glorious Revolution.
Identify the idea that Kings receive their power froM God and are respobsible only to God.
Divine Right of Kings.
Whose belief in one absolute truth , his own existence, is expressed in the statement "I think, therefore I am?"
Rene Descartes.
Name the English King whose execution horrified much of Europe.
Charles I.
What law named Elizabeth I govenrmor of both church and state in England?
Act of Supremacy.
Name the Treaty that officially ended the Thirty Year's War.
Peace of Westphalia.
What early scientist's observations suggested that, rather than pure orbs of light, planets had substance just like earth?
Who was the political philospher whose most lasting contribution to political thought was his analysis of the governmental system of checks and balanes?
Charles-Louis de Secondat, aka the Baron de Montesquieu
Who is the philospher who is credited with developing the scientific method?
Francis Bacon.
What Protestent group in England was inspired by Calvinist ideas?
English Calvinists or Puritans.
Idnetify inflation.
Rising prices, basically. With the increased amount of people, there was a greater need for food & land. This was caused by the great influx of gold and silver form the Americas in the 16th century, in addition to the growing population and increased demand for food and land.
What enlightenment thinker was well known for his criticism of Christianity and his strong belief for religious toleration?
Who developed laws of planetary motion that were later challenged by Albert Einstein?
What long war involved all European powers except England?
Thirty Year's War.
What Protestent group in France was inspired by Calvinist ideas?
Whose universal law of gravitation showed that one law could explain all motion in the universe?
Whose defeat of the King's forces allowed him to take control of England and eventually establish a military dictatorship?
Oliver Cromwell.
What monarch tried to avoid war with France and Spain by supporting which ever country was weaker at various times?
Elizabeth I.
What were the Parliamentary forces in the 1643 English Civil War called?
Roundheads, who supported Oliver Cromwell, and the Protestents
Who were the people with capital who are willing to take the risks associated with seeking new business opportunities?
What new literary and artistic style emphasized using feelings and emotions over reason as the source of knowing?
What term was used by the Congress of Vienna to mean that lawful monarchs from the royal families that had ruled before Napoleon would be restored to their positions of power in order to keep peace and stability in Europe?
Principle of Legitimacy.
Identify the French National Assembly's promiste to continue to meet until they had produced the first French Constitution.
Tennis Court Oath.
The storming of what famous prison began the French Revolution?
What all-German parliament in 1848 hoped to fulfill a liberal and national dream of a constitution for a new united Germany but failed?
Frankfurt Assembly.
What is the extreme form of Marxist socialism practiced by the Bolsheviks in Russia?
What production method was used by rural, at home workers?
Cottage industry.
Who were the Marxists that rejected violent revolution in favor of the legal means for gaining reform?
the revisionists
What political faction represented the interests of radicals in the city of Paris and passed a decree condemning Louis SXI to death at the beginning of 1793?
Identify the democratic nation composed of good citizens that the Committe of Public Safety tried to establish during the French Revolution.
What literary style did Charles Dickens use to focus on the lower and middle classes (ordinary characters) in Britain?
What new kind of society did many young soldiers returning to Austria from war in the trenches, hope for because of the injustices they witnessed between the "elite" officers, and the lower class soldiers?
What is the term historians often use to describe Otto von Bismarck as the greatest practicioner of the kind of politics based on practical matters rather than on theory or ethic?
Identify the right of powerful countries to maintain order throughout Europe but was rejected by England.
Principle of Intervention.
Name meetings held by the great powers in Europe so that they could maintian the new balance of power after Napoleon's exile.
The Concert of Europe
What theory is used to mean govenrmental ownership and control of the means of production?
During the French Revolution, what group feared the radical mobs in Paris and leaned toward keeping the King alive?
During the Reign of Terror, which leader set up revolutionary courts to prosecute enemies of the Republic?
According to Marx and Engels in THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO, what gropu of oppressed people would eventually rie up in violent revolution against the bourgeoise?
Name the war that destroyed the Concert of Europe and left Austria without friends among the great powers in Europe.
Crimean War.
Name the meeting of the great powers of Europe who wanted to undo the changes brought by the French Revolution and Napoleon.
Congress of Vienna.
Name the association of national socialist groups formed in 1889 by leaders of various socialist parties that were meant to fight against capitalism worldwide.
the second international
Identify the organized work stoppages called by labor unions.
What island was Napoleon exiled to after his final defeat at Waterloo?
St. Helena.
What did the English Bill of Rights do?
Gave Parliament absolute power.
Identify inductive reasoning, deductive resoning, and rationalism.
inductive = particular to general
deductive = general to particular
rationalism = believe that reason is the chief source of knowledge.
According to Adam Smith's WEALTH OF NATIONS, what roles should governments play in society?
State should not interfere in economic matters. (laissez faire)

the government should...
protect society from invasion (the army); defend citizens from injustice (the police); keep up certain public works (roads etc)
Identify the ideas of Voltaire, Diderot, Copernicus, and Descartes.
V = Religious toleration, deist
Did = Religious tolerance, wanted to see social change
C = heliocentric universe
Des = "I think, therefore I am," rationalism
What was the unusual outcome of European Wars in the 18th & 19th centuries?
They would only last a few weeks.
Identify enlightened absolutism, laissez-faire, socialism, & planned economy.
ENLIGHTENED ABSOLUTISM = "you're all equal to me, but I'll have power over you"
LAISSEZ-FAIRE = government rules are: protect society from invasion, dend citizens from injustice (police force), certain public works
SOCIALISM = society owns/controls the means of production
PLANNED ECONOMY = government system directed by government agencies.
Explain the Ptolemaic system.
Geocentric, has a prime mover.
What were the three most important arguements Mary Wollstonecraft wrote about in the VINDICATION OF THE RIGHTS OF WOMEN?
In A VINDICATION OF THE RIGHTS OF WOMEN, Wollstonecraft identified two problems with the views of many Enlightenment thinkers. She noted that the same ppl who argued that women must obey men also said that gov’t based on the arbitrary power of monarchs over their subjects was wrong. Wollstonecraft pointed out that the power of men over women was equally wrong. Wollstonecraft further argued that the Enlightenment was based on an ideal of reason in all human beings. Because women have reason, they are entitled to the same rights as men. Women, Wollstonecraft declared, should have equal rights in education, as well as in economic and political life.
Explain Isaac Newton's universal law of gravitation.
In mathematic terms, that every object in the universe is attracted to every other object of a force called gravity.
What were the rights claimed by the French Declaration of the Rihts of Man and the Citizen?
On August 26, the National Assembly adopted the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen. Inspired by the American Declaration of Independence and Constitution, and the English Bill of Rights, this charter of basic liberties began with a ringing affirmation of the “natural and imprescriptibly rights of man” to “liberty, property, security, and the resistance to oppression.”
How was Louis XVI forced to accept the National Assembly's decrees?
The women marched to Versailles and were like, "AHH! You will help our children because they are STARVING and DYING!!" - haha
Explain the National Convention's policy of dechristianization.
The word saint was removed from street names, churches were pillaged and closed by revolutionary armies, and priests were encouraged to marry. In Paris, the cathedral of Norte Dame was designated a “temple of reason.” In November 1793, a public ceremony dedicated to the worship of reason was held in the former cathedral. Patriotic maidens in white dresses parade before a temple of reason where the high altar had once stood. Another example of dechristianization was the adoption of a new calendar. Years would no longer be number from the birth of Christ, but from September 22, 1792 – the first day of the French Republic. The calendar contained 12 months. Each month consists of three 10-day weeks, with the tenth day of each week a day of rest. This eliminated Sundays and Sunday worship services, as well as church holidays. Actually, the whole plan just backfired – most French were Catholic.
What is a coup d'etat?
A sudden overthrow of the government.
Olympe de Gouges - she insisted that women should have all the same rights as men, but the National Assembly igonred her demands.
Explain the purpose of the Committee of Public Safety.
The National Convention gave braod powers to a special committe of 12, known as the Committee of Public Safety. They were the internal police force of the revolution, the body trying to keep the revolution going (targeting anti-revolutionaries).
What plan did Napoleon use to waken the British economy that ultimately weakened his own military?
Mister Napoleon turned to his Continental System to defeat Britain. The aim of the Continental System was to stop British goods from reaching the European continent to be sold there. By weakening Britain economically, Napoleon destroyed its ability to wage war. The continental system, too, failed. Allied states resented being told by Napoleon that they couldn't trade with Britain, so some began to cheat. Others resisted. Later on, new markers in the Middle East and in Latin America gave Britain new outlets for its other goods. The end.
What were the two main reasons Napoleon's empire collapsed?
Nationalism and Great Britain. Britain's survival was due primarily to its sea power, and Napoleon's spread of the principles of the French Revolution beyond France indirectly brought a spread to nationalism as well.
How did Napoleon's law code reflect the political and social advances of the French Revolution?
single law code now, Civil Code, and harder for women to get divorces (Before over 300 codes of law) – in this law code most revolutionary ideas were kept. Equality before the law – no one is above the law, the law applies to everyone and everyone equally – everyone was treated equally in the judicial system. Equality of condition – not a lot of social economical gap, same opportunities, same amt of money – communism. The interests of employers was safeguarded though N. forbidding labor unions and strikes. The Advances in the revolution was destroyed when women could no longer inherit land or call on a divorce (the status of women has now dropped). Now children and daughters could not inherit property as they could before the revolution.
Why did Poland disappear as an independent nation in the 18th century?
Poland disappeared because different nations split it up into many parts and Poland became a nation again after WWI
Describe Enlightened Absolutism. Why did it fail?
Enlightened absolutism was a system in which rulers tried to govern by enlightenment principles while maintaining their full royal power. It failed because most rulers did not take reform seriously. They simply used their power to collect more taxes, creating armies, to wage war, and eventually to gain more power. They were driven by a concern for power and the well-being of their state. Almost all nations saw no changes or effects from the Enlightened rulers.
Why did the British restore Charles II to the throne after the English Revolution and Cromwell's Republic?
They wanted to restore the monarchy and avoid another military dictatorship, as Cromwell’s rule became.
Explain Napoleon's 1801 Concordat with the Catholic Church.
Napoleon proclaimed Catholicism the majority religion in France, as long as the Pope agreed to not ask for the return of church lands that had been seized during the Revolution. This allowed for peace between the French government and Catholic Church, as well as bringing Napoleon supporters (those who got to keep the land they had seized).
What were the results of the Peace of Westpahlia?
The Peace of Westphalia officially ended the 30 years war. This group of peace treaties gave territory to all major contenders; gave all German territories the authority to determine their own religion (including Calvinism); recognized over 300 German states as independent, sovereign states with the ability to conduct their own foreign policy; and the Holy Roman Empire was no longer apolitical entity (though it is not fully dissolved until 1806).
Why did Louis XIV build his palace at Versailles?
The royal court that Louis established at Versailles served three purposes. It was the personal household of the king. In addition, the chief offices state was located there, so Louis could watch over them. Finally, Versailles was the place where powerful subjects came to find favors and offices for themselves.
Why did Spain deline at the end of the 17th Century?
Spain was declining economically and financially
War is very expensive
Describe the late Baroque, or Rocco style in art and architecture.
This artistic style stressed grace, charm, and gentle action; it was highly secular. It influenced architecture and art with its graceful curves and delicate designs colored in gold.
Explain Sigmund Freud's ideas about the human subconscious.
Freud believed that human behavior was strongly determined by past experiences and internal forces of which people were largely unaware. Freud argued that painful and unsettling experiences were repressed, or hidden from a person’s conscious awareness. According to Freud, repression of such experiences began in childhood, so he devised a method, psychoanalysis, by which a therapist and patient could probe deeply into the patient’s memory. In the 1920s, Freud’s ideas gained worldwide acceptance.
Explain the purpose of the Great Reform Bill of 1832 in Great Britain.
In 1832, Parliament passed a bill that increased the number of male voters. By giving the industrial middle class an interest in ruling Britain, Britain avoided revolution in 1848.
Where did Italian Liberals find assistance in their quest for Italian unification?
Piedmont, Victor Immanuel II

They sought assistance from France because Cavour knew that Piedmont could not destroy the Austrian army.
What did Social Darwinists believe?
a LOT. Charles Darwin’s theories were applied to human society in a radical way by nationalists and racists. Their ideas are social Darwinism. Herbert Spencer argued that social progress came from “the struggle for survival” the “fit” survived. Prominent businessmen used this to explain their success. They thought they had succeeded because they were better than everyone else. Extreme nationalists applied this to their nations. Friedrich von Bernhardi argued in 1907 that war is a biological necessity because it weeps out the unfit. In Germany Houston Stewart Chamberlain believed modern day Germans were the only pure successors of the Aryans, who were portrayed as the original creators of Western culture. Chamberlain singled out Jews as the racial enemy. Anti-Semitism developed. Jews were gaining legal equality in the nineteenth century. Jews left the ghettos and assimilated into he cultures around them. Dreyfus was a captain in the French general staff. Human beings have the same animal origins – natural selection. Promotes the idea of racism – extreme nationalism to lead to the new imperialism – done at the expense of the indigenous societies.
What did Peter the Great do to westernize Russia?
After his first trip to the West, Peter began to introduce Western customs, practices, and manners into Russia. He ordered the preparation of the first Russian book of etiquette to teach Western manners. Among other things, the book pointed out that it was not polite to spit on the floor or to scratch oneself at dinner - fleas were not uncommon (nasty). The Eastern Orthodox was influenced by Russia - Muslim and Christian ideas.
Describe the religious beliefs of Voltaire.
Voltaire was deist - God set a clock and let us deal with the rest of the world; Newtonian Clock
Why did Henry IV of France convert from Calvinism to Catholicism?
He realized that as a Protestent he would never be accepted by the majority of Catholic France. He converted to Catholicism in 1598 after he succeeded to the throne.
What was the purpose of the Frankfurt Assembly of 1848?
They opposed backward monarchies and wanted unification.
How was Napoleon's aristocracy diffrent from that of the Ancient Regime before the French Revolution?
based on marriage
What led to the collapse of the Russian Provisional Government in November 1917?
so Kerensky wanted to stay in WWI against the people's wishes because he wanted to look prideful and crap. so in stayin gin the war he ended up turning the people against eachother and then everyone was like oh man russia blows. so then when Lenin came along and preached his PEACE AND EQUALITY, they were drawn to it because it sounded better. so then it became a battle between the provisional government and the bolsheviks and the gov lost.
What was the primary significance of the Crimean War?
It destroyed the Concert of Europe.
Why did the Legislative Assemly create the Paris Commune of 1871?
France was being defeated in many wars by foreign foes
What were the four primary "points" in U.S. President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points?
A) Open diplomacy - no secret treaties
B) Self-determination of all people - choose own government
C) Reduction of armaments around the world
D) Establishment of League of Nations for collective security
How did Britain avoid the revolutions that plagued Europe in 1848?
Britain was governed by aristocratic landowning classes, which dominated both houses of Parliament. In 1832, Parliament passed a bill that increased the number of male voters. The new voters were chiefly members of the industrial middle class, and by giving this middle class an interest in ruling Britain, Britain managed to avoid revolution.
What sector of the economy left many jobless at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution?
How did social classes change with the Industrial Revolution?
Two new social classes were formed - industrial middle class and the working middle class
Who controleld the greatest amount of wealth in the early 1900s?
new elite
What was the purpose of public education?
To increase nationalism, create educated votes, and make it easier for people to gain the general knowledge they needed to work in factories
What was the purpose of trade unions?
organized to give the workers more power
Why did Western European powers begin to search for colonies after 1880?
They needed new markets⬦new imperialism⬦raw materials⬦expanded their power⬦more access to military
In WWI, how was war on the Eastern front different from war on the Western fronts?
Eastern front had mobility, Western front was mostly in trenches.
In what ways was Russia unprepared for WWI?
they did not have good leadership; economy was weakening
Who betrayed the Triple Alliance and why?
Italy - cause France promised them to Venetia
What was the fatal mistake of Alexander Kerensky's provisional government?
Staying in WWI.

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