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Chapter 8!!!

Terms

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National nominating convention
the caucus system was replaced by the Jacksonians who replaced it with the national nominating convention. This convention, included delegates from each state represented that would then decide on each party's presidential nominee. The goal of this convention was to take the nomination of votes from the hands of the elite and put it into the hands of the everyday common people
Elizabeth Blackwell
she was the first woman to earn a medical degree in the United States or Europe. In 1857 she founded the unit in New York infirmary for women and children which was staffed only by women.
American colonization Society
1816, the ACS this Society was founded in order to move the African-Americans in America, to Africa. There were many prominent Americans who supported this Society. In the end, because there were over one million African Americans in America, the United States said that to move all these people to Africa was impossible. There were also many African-Americans who said that the United States was their home. So in the end, only about 12,000 African Americans ended up moving to Africa.
Know Nothings
the American party, formed in July of 1854. It was a secret, and so those who were questioned, answered I know nothing. In the 1850s, there were a large group.
Brook farm
Brook Farm was a utopian community established by the transcendentalist George Ripley. The members of the farm were able to engage in intellectual activity while also running a farm. This was established in 1841, but due to a fire, the farm collapsed, and dissolved due to huge debts.
Shakers
a religious group that established small utopian communities, ranging from Maine to Kentucky. The name Shaker came from a ritual shaking dance that the members of the group performed. In the mid-1800s, the Shakers reached their peak with almost 6000 members. The Shakers did not believe in having children, and so they only relied on converts to expand the community. In the end though, they were very few Americans who decided to live in utopian communities.
Lucrecia Mott
active in the antislavery movement, and helped to organize the Seneca Falls Convention. This marked the beginning of an organized women's movement
Catherine Beecher
wrote the book it Treatise on domestic economy. This book argued that women could fight for film and home, and it instructed women on child care, cooking, and health matters.
American antislavery Society
because of Garrison, there were enough followers in the north for him to found a New England Antislavery Society in 1832 and to the American antislavery Society in 1833. By the mid-1830s, there were hundreds of Society chapters and in 1838, there were more than 1350 chapters with over 250,000 members.
Nullification
the idea of nullification was their states had the right to declare a federal law null. Some supported this view because they said it was the state's that made up the union, and so they should have that decision as to whether or not a law should be kept within their individual state. John C. Calhoun was the one who proposed the analysis Haitian theory. Arguments went on about whether or not the states should have this right, it ended however, in January of 1830 when Robert Hayne, and Daniel Webster confronted each other on the Senate floor. Hayne said at the hearing in was no more than a voluntary association of states, and he blamed that liberty should come first and union should come second. Webster said that neither liberty nor the union could survive without universal federal laws.
Worcester versus Georgia
in 1832 John Marshall ordered state officials to honor the Cherokee property rights Jackson responded by saying that basically, Marshall has said what he wants to say, now let's see how he can make it happen. Jackson said there is no waiting that Marshall would not be able to enforce what he had to order. And so the Cherokee property rights were not honored.
Horace Mann
a leaner in the public education movements. Horace was part of the Massachusetts legislator and was president of the Massachusetts Senate. He he wanted more public education, and in 1873 he backed a bill creating a state board of education in Massachusetts. When the bill was passed, he stepped down for his elective office and served as secretary of the new board, he was in this post for 12 years. Some of his changes were, that he doubled teacher salaries, opened 15 new high schools, and establish schools for teacher training called "normal schools." Many northern states follow Massachusetts lead.
The tariff of abominations
the tariff of abominations was proposed by those who hated Monroe. The goal of this tariff was to make Andrew Jackson popular and wanted by the people. The plan for this tax, which nobody thought would be passed, was to increase taxes by 68% on 92% of goods. This was an outrageous law, they knew, but they presented it only to make Andrew Jackson look good. The law, ended up being passed, ended Jackson, the next president, had the mess on his hands to deal with.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
also helped to organize the Seneca Falls Convention. Stanton shocked many people, by proposing that they focused on the right to vote. This convention, is known as the unofficial beginning of the struggle for women's voting rights.
Lyman Beecher
a prominent minister who, he believed it was the nations citizenry more than the government, that should take care of building a better society. He said that the voluntary emerges of the nation itself, that is what he believed was true reform.
Trail of tears
the Trail of tears was the over 800 mile walk that the Cherokee Indians had to walk in order to leave their present-day homes, and move to the Oklahoma area to continue their lives. This is known as the Trail of tears, because over 4000 people died along the way to Oklahoma.
Abolition
a group of antislavery groups, doing the 1830s argued that enslaved African-Americans should be freed immediately without gradual measures or compensation to formal slaveholders.
William Lloyd Garrison
in the 1830s he developed a large national abolitionist movement rapidly.
Mary Lyon
and educator, who in 1837, opened the Mount Holyoke female seminary in Massachusetts. This was the first institution of higher education for women only.
Force Bill
the force bill, passed by Congress in 1833, authorize the president to use military efforts in order to enforce acts of Congress. This was in response, to Jackson in considering and nullification as an act of treason.
Caucus system
the caucus system was a system in which only the Congress members could select a nominee for the upcoming presidential election. This system made it possible for only those who had good connections to be able to even run for office, only those known by Congress members would ever become a nominee. No common person had a choice as to which member of the party he wanted to run for president. This choice was left up only two members of Congress.
Seneca Falls convention
the unofficial beginning of women asking for their rights to vote. And this was the first organized women's movement.
Indian removal act
the Indian removal act, put in place by Andrew Jackson, forced the Indians living in the South, to move west ward. This act gave the Indians two years, to the date, to leave the land they had occupied for centuries, up roots and their families, and move over 800 miles into what is now Oklahoma, to set up a new life in a new place. If they failed to leave within the two-year period, than they were in prison, treated horribly, with lack of food, water, and adequate supplies, over 4000 Indians ended up dying in prisons because of this cruel treatment. Those rule that within the 200 years had to march on foot to the Oklahoma area. Once again over 4000 people died along the way consisting mainly of children and the elderly.
Transcendentalism
an expression of American Romanticism, based on New England writers and philosophers. These people tried to persuade others to overcome the limits of their minds and let their souls reached out to embrace the beauty of the universe.
Romanticism
a movement which began in Europe and the 18 hundreds, that advocated feeling over reason, inner spirituality over external rules, the individual above society, and the nature over environments created by humans.
Frederick Douglass
one of the most prominent African-American figures in the African-American abolitionist movement. He escaped from slavery in Maryland, was a brilliant thinker, and an amazing speaker. He published in antislavery newspaper, the Northstar, and he wrote an autobiography, the narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass. This novel sold over 4500 copies after its publication in 1845.
The spoils system
this was a system, in which the new president recently elected, would choose to replace all of the previous president's employees, and to employ the new people solely on the basis that they were loyal to the current president. This would allow for the president to have complete support of all of those who were under his charge. This was also to show an exertion of his authority, and this was used as a way to reward those who were loyal to him as he worked hard to get into office.
Temperance movement
the temperance movement, was the belief that alcohol should only be taken in moderation. There were many of these groups, and in 1833 many of them joined together to form the American temperance Union. Some groups tried to prohibit the sales of liquor. In Maine, in 1851 they passed the first State prohibition law, this was followed by a dozen other states by 1855. Some states passed a local option law which allowed towns and villages to prohibit liquor sales within their boundaries.
Nativeism
feeling of hostility towards foreigners.
Sojourner Truth
she was another important African-American abolitionist. In 1827 soldiers are Dix gained freedom when New York freed all remaining slaved people. In the 1840s are antislavery speeches sheer huge crowds. Sojourner never had a formal education yet she was still able to gather listeners than using her with folksy wits, engaging storytelling, contagious singing, and a very strong message.
Penny press
in the early 1800s, this was a cheap way to produce mass numbers of newspapers. These newspapers covered everything from fires, crimes, marriage, gossip, politics, and local news. These are aspects that made many people interested in the newspapers.
Dorthea Dix
a leader of the prison Reform movement, who also created social institutions of a mentally ill. She was a very influential person, one of many citizens who worked to reform various aspects of American society in the mid-1800s. What made Dix deicide to help with these reforms, was being asked to lead a Sunday school class at a local prison. There she saw many people including the mentally ill, lay neglected in dirty and cold rooms.

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