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Conflict Management Midterm

Terms

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The 4 Horsemen
Criticism, Defensiveness, Stonewalling, Contempt
COMPETITION
you are concerned for yourself but have only a low level of concern for the other.
COMPROMISE
The middle ground
Attempts to save face
(1) Claim unjust intimidation, (2) Refuse to step back from a position, (3) Suppress conflict issues.
Win-Lose
conflict is a struggle
THREATS
Most common competitive tactic. The source of the threat must control the outcome and the threat must be viewed as negative by the recipient.
Win-Lose
conflict is explosive
ACCOMMODATION
represents a low level of concern for yourself but a high level of concern for the other.
Win-Lose
conflict is an animal behavior
Win-Lose
conflict is warlike and violent
Staying actively engaged
speak up, clarify one's beliefs values, and priorities, stay emotionally connected to significant others, state differences and allow others to do the same
Coalitions begin for good reasons:
share content information, have others who give support and understanding, have a sense of belonging, gain power
ASSERTIVE
enhance the self, work towards achieving desired goals and are expressive. The person is competitive without berating, ridiculing or damaging the other.
Transformative Metaphors
conflict as musical improvisation
The Overlapping Nature of TRIP Goals
Interests and goals overlap with one another and differ in primacy Usually there is an overlap, with one primary goal.
Positive assumptions
Conflict is inevitable; therefore, the constructive way to approach conflict is as "a fact of life".
Relationship between intragroup conflict and team performance effectiveness
Intragroup conflict had a direct negative effect on team performance effectiveness
Clarify Your Goals
Only clear goals can be shared
CONFLICT STYLES
pattern responses, or clusters of behavior that people use in conflict
Positive assumptions
Conflict serves the function of "bringing problems to the table".
Negative assumptions
Conflicts and disagreements are the same phenomenon
The five-part definition of conflict
Conflict is the Expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce resources and interference from others in achieving their goals.
Problems with High Power
corruption, perceptual distortions of self and other, can result in a taste for power, temptation to illegally use institutional resources as means of self-enrichment, false feedback, devaluing less powerful.
RICE Power Currencies
Resource control, Interpersonal linkages, Communication skills, Expertise
Male gender effect
More aggressive
Systems Theory
tells us about the workings of the entire system and subsystems in organizations, small groups, and families.
Restraint
higher-power parties limit their power by refusing to use all the currencies they have at their disposal.
4-style
yielding-problem solving-inaction-contending
Designated
Power is given to some other group or entity.
Relational Theory of Power
Power is a property of the social relationship rather than a quality of the individual. Power is not owned by an individual but is a product of the social relationship in which certain qualities become important and valuable to others.
System Rules
Rules used in this context means the underlying communication structure of the interaction
TRIP
Topic, Relational, Idenity, Process
The five sources of intragroup conflict
Leadership style, task structure, group composition and size, cohesiveness, and groupthink.
Win-Lose
conflict is an act of nature
3-style
non-confrontation- solution- control
NEGATIVE SANCTION
Source controls the threat and its outcome and provides a warning.
Negative assumptions
Conflict interaction should be polite and orderly
The Overlapping Nature of TRIP Goals
Identify and relational issues are the "drivers" of the disputes; they underlie topic and process issues.
Intrapersonal
within self
Female gender effect
In organizations are more likely to leave when there is ongoing pervasive conflict.
Accuracy that Gottman can predict
94%
VIOLENCE
Ultimate competitive tactic is physical. When conflict moves beyond threats and verbal aggressiveness.
Gottman's ratio
5:1
Win-Lose
conflict is a trial
Rules are stated
in prescriptive, not evaluative, language
Metacommunication
talking about the relationship and how the parties will handle their conflicts, agree on acceptable behaviors, etc. Focus on process.
Transactive Goals
Goals discovered during the conflict itself.
Metaphors can be helpful in assessment is that by their nature they are:
Whole Visual Nonverbal Symbolic
Expertise
Special knowledge, skills, and talents that are useful for the task at hand. Being able to decode nonverbal cues may give you power when others need your expertise.
Relationship between intrapersonal conflict and work satisfaction
Intrapersonal conflict had a direct negative affect on work satisfaction
Retrospective Goals
Emerge as conflict is over and give us clarity
Transformative Metaphors
conflict resolution as quilt making
HARASSMENT
Another form of verbally aggressive tactics
Positive assumptions
Conflict can function to clear out resentments and help people understand each other.
THE AVOID/CRITICIZE LOOP
Avoid bringing up an issue to someone directly but spend a lot of time talking about them to others. This loop allows one to spout off and talk about others, but not join with them face to face to solve a problem.
Socialized Self
WE MAKE DECISIONS BASED ON SOCIAL ACCEPTANCE. (SOCIAL NORMS)
DIRECT DENIAL
Deny that a conflict is present
Systems theory must accomplish:
(1) assessing the workings of the overall system (2) determining recurring patterns (3) identifying individual contributions. (4) Conflict in systems occurs in chain reactions.
Neutral or Objective Metaphors
conflict is a game
UNMANAGED INCIVILITY
Rudeness and injustice that contaminates the workplace. Overtime it can develop into bullying as repeated, long term acts wear down, demoralizing, stigmatize and isolates those who are targeted.
Relational Goals
define how each party wants to be treated by the other and the amount of interdependence they desire. They are at the heart of all conflict interactions yet are difficult to specify from the outside.
The Overlapping Nature of TRIP Goals
In a serious dispute, topic-only solutions are rarely satisfying to conflict parties.
Rules are
prescriptions for behavior stated in the following form
THREAT IS CREDIBLE ONLY, IF
1. the source is in a position to administer the punishment. 2. Source is willing to invoke the punishment. 3. Punishment is something to be avoided.
Heavy communicators
Resist being moved out of that central role, At the same time complain about the 'overwork" involved in keeping the system happy. Isolate- one member who is 'out' compared to others, Complains about the decisions or personalities of central people, Resists coming closer to the center of communication flow .
NON COMMITTAL STATEMENTS
Neither affirms nor denies the presence of conflict and is not evasive replies or topic shifts.
VERBAL AGGRESSIVENESS
A form of communication violence in character attacks, insults, teasing, ridicule and profanity.
BULLYING
Aggressive tactics that overlap with verbal aggressiveness and violence are acts of bullying. Bullying is persistent badgering, harassment and psychological terrorizing and demoralizing.
Male gender effect
More likely to take control of the conversation to lead it in the direction they want, but expect their (female) counterparts to put up a fight like men would do.
NON COMMITAL QUESTIONS
Unfocused and conflict irrelevant questions.
Coalitions become a problem
become toxic when they become so tight that the groups get locked into destructive conflict with one another communication patterns both reflect and create the difficulties
Conflict Triangles
Basic unit of analysis for conflict communication
Constructive Power Balancing
Restraint, Focus on Interdependence, Staying actively engaged, Empowerment, Metacommunication
Male filter
More independent criterion for managing conflict.
How is cognitive dissonance reduced?
THE CONCEPT OF RATIONALIZATION AS THE PRIMARY MEANS FOR CONFLICT RESOLUTION MAY PROVIDE INSIGHTS FOR AN INDIVIDUAL TO ANALYZE HIS/HER OWN PROCEDURES.
Microevents are similar to rules, but
microevents are descriptive, not prescriptive, of behavior.
Clarify Your Goals
Clear goals are reached more often than unclear goals.
TACTICS
individulal (moves) people make to carry out their general approach.
Male gender effect
Self-esteem higher when younger and lower when lofty goals that are set for oneself are not met.
Process Goals
the way the conflict is handled, what degree of formality the conflict uses.
Chinese symbol for conflict
Stands for Danger and Opportunity
The five sources of intrapersonal conflict
Misassignment and goal incongruence, inappropriate demand on capacity, organizational structure, supervisory style, and position in the organization
CLASSIFICATION SCHEME OF CONFLICT STYLES
range from 2-3-4-5 style approach
Transformative Metaphors
conflict is a garden
Female gender effect
Indirect means of aggression at a younger age.
AVOIDANCE
represents low assertiveness & low cooperativeness.
Female filter
Seem to exhibit fewre self-presentational actions.
TOPIC SHIFTS
Statements that germinate discussion of a conflict issue before each person has expressed an opinion.
COMPETITIVE STYLE
conflict is productive if one competes to accomplish individual goals without destroying the other person.
Male gender effect
In lab exercises exhibit dominating and competitive behavior.
FRIENDLY JOKING
joking or laughter
non zero-sum
a situation in which a participant's gain or loss is exactly balanced by the losses or gains of the other participant(s).
Two types of culture
1. Individualistic 2. Collectivistic
How is intrapersonal conflict related to interpersonal conflict?
ALL INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT IS ROOTED IN INTERPERSONAL CONFLICT", "WE USUALLY ASSUME THAT OUR PROBLEMS AND CONFLICTS ARE WITH OTHER PEOPLE, SO WE STRUGGLE TO BE FREE OF THEIR DEMANDS, AND DO NOT REALIZE HOW MUCH OF THE CONFLICT IS ACTUALLY WITHIN US
Either/Or
This means you have power or I have power not both this structure. There is a power struggle in this instance and there is a fixed amount of power.
Conceptualized Self
WE MAKE DECISIONS BASED ON WHAT WILL MAKE US ACCEPT OURSELVES. CREATING THE "IDEAL SELF" IMAGE.
ABSTRACT REMARKS
Generalizations, hypothetical statements
IMPLICIT DENIAL
Provide a rational for a denial statement
Transactive Goals
They change when we get the chance to express feelings, be heard and talk, and listen.
A coalition:
is formed by more communication with some people, compared to others.
zero sum
a gain for one side entails a corresponding loss for the other
EVASIVE REMARKS
Fails to acknowledge or deny that conflict exists
Win-Lose
conflict is a mess
The Overlapping Nature of TRIP Goals
Conflict parties often specialize in one kind of goal People usually highlight one goal and limit themselves to it. They kind of specialize in that goal.
INDIVIUALISTIC CULTURES:
avoidance represents indirect escalation.
Win-Lose
conflict is a communication breakdown
5-style
integrating- obligating-dominating-avoiding-compromising
Win-Lose
conflict is a wound
Descriptive language
the basic tool for assessing the system from a 'no blame' perspective.
Negative assumptions
Conflict is a result of personal pathology
Both/And
Power in this case is shared, changing, varying, integrated and distributed. This is also the first choice of women in our culture.
COLLABORATION
Both your concerns and others
Prospective Goals
When you clarify __________ you: gain clarity about what you want, prepare your self for a discussion, and get a sense of "I can do this"
PROCEDURAL REMARKS
Procedural statements that supplant discussion of conflict.
Clarify Your Goals
Clear goals can be altered more easily than vague goals
The Overlapping Nature of TRIP Goals
Not all types of goals emerge in all disputes. You do not have to have all of the T-R-I-P to have a conflict.
COMPETITION
Competitive or "power over" style is characterized by aggressive and uncooperative behavior, pursuing your own concerns at the expense of others. Competitive styles attempt to gain power by direct confrontation - "a battlefield"
Female filter
Will choose responses based on interpersonal obligation.
Problems with Low Power
corruption, violence.
Components of the rhetorical model of intrapersonal conflict
SOCIALIZED SELF (SS), PRIMITIVE SELF (PS), CONCEPTIALIZING SELF (CS)
______ is the best prediction of a successful marriage
The quality of communication
Escalatory spiral
very emotional laden, careless interchange where strong feelings, usually anger and fear are aroused.
Identity or Face-Saving Goals
as conflicts increase in intensity, the parties shift to face saving as a key goal.
Relationship between intragroup conflict and work satisfaction
Intragroup conflict had a direct negative affect on work satisfaction
POSITIVE SANCTION
Source makes a promise and provides a recommendation
What is intrapersonal conflict?
IS AN AWARENESS OF THOUGHTS OR ACTIONS THAT ARE INCOMPATIBLE WITH AN INDIVIDUAL'S ATTITUDES, CREATING AN INNER STRUGGLE WHICH MAY BE MANIFESTED AT THE INTERPERSONAL LEVEL
Negative assumptions
Conflict should never be escalated
PBA=DBA
the power of B over A is equal to the dependence that A has on B
COMPETITIVE TACTICS INVOLVE
1. verbally competitive. 2. Individualistic behavior - these tactics focus on win/lose.
Interpersonal linkages
Your position in the larger system, such as being central to the communication exchange. Suppose you have a group of friends and neither side knows each other, this makes you the person to connect the groups.
2-style
comparative-competition
How to turn destructive into constructive conflict
Use I statements, describe the undesirable behavior, Use neutral not Judgmental language, ask for a specific behavioral change.
Neutral or Objective Metaphors
conflict is a heroic adventure
Clarify Your Goals
Solutions go unrecognized if you do not know what you want
intergroup
between groups
Microevents
Repetitive communication patterns that carry information about the underlying conflict structure.
Distributive Power
(either/or) comes from your ability to achieve your objective even when others stand in your way.
DuPont's Strategy
"tit for tat" game strategy
Communication skills
Conversational skills, persuasive ability, listening skills, group leadership skills, and the ability to form close bonds with others. Those who communicate well gain value and thus interpersonal power.
COMPROMISE
Intermediate style results in some gains and some losses for each party. At times confused with collaboration, which requires creative solutions and flexibility. Compromise differs, however, it requires trade offs and exchanges.
ACCOMMODATIONS
Prefers a cooperative and harmonizing approach.
Power is:
designated, distributive, integrative
AVOIDANCE CULTURES
-serves as a defense against engagement or confrontation. serves different functions in collectivistic cultures than in individualistic cultures.
Prospective Goals
Taking the time to clarify what you want from a particular interaction lays the ground work for more effective conflict.
Intragroup
within group
Outcome of the DuPont-Greenpeace conflict
the "game" played by DuPont and Greenpeace was not about resolving conflict, instead this game was ultimately about getting the attention of important audiences, a goal that made prolonged conflict a central strategy to both parties. Both parties may have met their objectives by not resolving the conflict in the end.
Female gender effect
Often remain in the listening role rather than lecturing.
Positive assumptions
Conflict often helps people join together an clarify their goals.
What is cognitive dissonance?
"THE PROCESS INVOLVED IN RESOLVING INTERNAL CONFLICT"
RHETORICAL SENSITIVITY
A change in communication style based on the demands of different situations.
Transformative Metaphors
conflict is a bargaining table
Negative assumptions
Anger is the predominate emotion in conflict interaction
PROMISE
If the source controls the outcome and the recipient sees the outcome as positive.
Three types of couples
Avoiding, Volatile, Validating
Coalitions & Counter-coalitions become self-justifying
stress their similarities to one another highlight their dissimilarities to those not in the coalition accelerate these differences throughout time
Male gender effect
Value autonomy and independence
PAB=DAB
the power of A over B is equal to the dependence that B has on A
The Overlapping Nature of TRIP Goals
Goals may emerge in a different form Some times a topic goal can emerge at an R-I-P goal.
Integrative Power
(both/and)getting together with someone else to achieve goals you both agree with.
Heavy communicators
those who are central to passing and receiving messages from other members.
Greenpeace's Strategy
zero sum
Twin cycles of avoidance
AVOIDANCE LEADING TO MORE AVOIDANCE and Avoidance leading to escalation then more avoidance
Focus on Interdependence
power to the unit- lower power individuals focus on ways the people involved in the conflict are dependent on eachother, instead of focusing on their individual needs Calm persistence
DESCREPANCIES IN ACCOUNTS OF VIOLENCE
Underreported violence
Transformative Metaphors
conflict is a tide
Attempts to restore lost face
(1) help others increase their sense of self-esteem, (2) Avoid giving directives, (3) listen carefully to others and take their concerns into account, (4) ask questions so the other person can examine his goals.
Resource control
Often comes with one's formal position in an organization or group. Your boss has control over how much money you make or how many vacation days you get a year. Your parents have the last say when it comes to using the car on the weekend
Relationship between intrapersonal conflict and intragroup conflict
Intrapersonal conflict had a direct positive effect on intragroup conflict.
Neutral or Objective Metaphors
conflict is a balancing act
WARNING
The other person "warns" another, but does not control the outcome.
COLLECTIVISTIC CULTURES:
avoidance represents indirect working through.
Designated Power
(power given by others) comes from your position.
Female gender effect
In lab exercises women exhibit avoidant and compromising behavior.
Female gender effect
Self-esteem lower until midlife when family roles are less strict.
Male filter
Will choose responses based on the offended person's rights.
Female filter
May use a more interdependant criterion when managing conflict.
POSTPONEMENT
acknowledge persons feelings but suggests discussing it later.
COLLABORATION
Demands the most constructive engagement of any conflict styles. Shows a high level of concern for ones goals and the goals of others. The successful solution of the problem and enhancement of the relationship is the goal. It involves both parties working together for a solution not only ends the conflict, but maximizes the gains for both parties.
Avoidance spiral
1. Less direct interaction 2. active avoidance of the other party 3. Reduction of dependence 4. Harboring of resentment or disappointment 5. Complaining to third persons about the other party.
Negative assumptions
Harmony is normal and conflict is abnormal
Primitive Self
WE MAKE DECISIONS BASED ON WHAT WE TRULY WANT, BUT DENY ANY RESPONSIBILITY. (" PS HAS THE CAPACITY TO SPEAK, REASON AND FORMULATE STRATEGIES FOR MEETING ITS NEEDS OF THE INDIVIDUAL, THE PRIMARY CONCERN OF PS IS TO PERSUADE THE INDIVIDUAL THAT HIS/HER NEEDS MUST BE GRATIFIED IMMEDIATELY")
Topic Goals
emerge as different ideas about what to do, what decisions to make, where to go, how to allocate resources, or other externally objectifiable issues.
Transformative Metaphors
conflict is a dance
Male filter
State their position and provide support material for it.

Deck Info

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