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World History 2006


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⬢ an Islamic religious brotherhood that established an empire in North Africa and southern Spain in the 11th century AD
⬢ Began when a group of Berber Muslims made the hajj
⬢ Taught by Ibn Yasin, who greatly spread Islam
⬢ a group of Islamic reformers who overthrew the Almoravid Dynasty and established an empire in north Africa and southern Spain in the 12th century AD
⬢ Ibn Tumart, leader of Almohads, believed that the Almoravid group was too relaxed in their teachings.
⬢ By 1148 they controlled most of Morocco
Mali Empire
⬢ A West African empire that flourished from 1235 to the 1400s and grew rich from trade.
⬢ Economy was based on gold, which made them wealthy and allowed them to seize power.
⬢ Mansa Musa was their greatest leader. He was a brilliant military general, and gave much of the wealth of the Mali Empire to its people. Because of his generosity, the value of gold declined in Egypt for 12 years.
⬢ A west African Empire that conquered Mali and controlled trade from the 1400s to 1591
⬢ The first great King was Sonni Ali, who was a Muslim with animist beliefs. He brought wealth to the empire.
⬢ Another great king was Askia Mohommad. He was a devout Muslim who opened schools, mosques, and opened up courts to scholars and poets.
⬢ Continued to prosper until the late 16th century, but a civil war over the throne made Songhai prone to an outside attack to which it fell at the end of the century.
⬢ A western African kingdom that grew rich from taxing and controlling trade and that established an empire in the 9th-11th centuries.
⬢ Economy= gold + salt. Because of this, trade flourished and Ghana became wealthy. The government would collect taxes on the trade, and the king would store the gold nuggets in the palace.
⬢ This gold would be spread throughout the marketplace by the king.
• The oldest independent country in sub Saharan Africa, whose kingdoms brought it fame and wealth around the 4th century AD
• The kingdom of Aksum: traded gold and agricultural resources in the Red Sea Trade Network, one of the four great powers of its time, Ezana was one of its greatest leaders, and conquered many lands. It flourished until the 6th century AD, when it was cut out of the world’s major trading network and declined.
⬢ A great city created by the Shona people, which grew into an empire based on gold trade.
⬢ Stood near an important trade route, so had an advantage over other city states as far as trade. It was the center of economic, political, and religious activity of its empire.
⬢ The language that was spoken by those of eastern Africa, still spoken today, and was formed by the combination of the Bantu and Arabic languages
⬢ Spread through trade. Those who speak it share only a common language as their cultures are much different.
How did Islam spread?
Conquest and trade
Black Death
⬢ a deadly disease that spread across Asia and Europe in the middle 14th century, killing millions.
⬢ Wiped out 1/3 of the population of Europe
⬢ Brought most likely by rats and the Mongol invaders from Asia.
A renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievement
Combated idea that the Church and tradition were the only means of discovering truth.
Banking in the Renaissance
The Medici family- bankers to the Pope and the richest of Italy. They were the most trusted banking family of the Renaissance world. They were extremely wealthy, and used their wealth to manipulate politics in Florence.
Italian city States
Located in Northern Italy, which was more rural than the south. They were centers of trade and activity in Italy.
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought.
Renaissance Man
Characteristics: the “universal” man, educated in every area of study, artistic (dance, music, art), charming, witty, skilled at riding, wrestling, and swordsmanship.
printing press, perspective in art
France: Absolute Monarchy
⬢ Kings lived lavishly
⬢ Edict of Nantes: religious toleration. Abolished by the absolute monarchs, and protestants were forced to leave.
⬢ Joan of Arc won the 100 years war for France.
⬢ Peasantry vs. Nobility
⬢ Kings spent a lot of the peasants money on wars and palaces
⬢ King Louis XIX wore high heels to make himself look taller. Really spoiled.
Spain: Absolute Monarchy
⬢ Finances: declared bankrupt many times
⬢ Politics: according to aristocracy, money making = undignified
⬢ Culture: major ideals were military and Catholicism
⬢ Rulers: excessive inbreeding = decaying monarchy
⬢ Society: lost confidence in the state.
England: Absolute Monarchy
• Finances: joint partnerships and stock companies
• Society: Kings weren’t popular, many were Calvanist
• Wars: King couldn’t settle feuds, which would it be: King or Parliament?
• Culture: Most were Calvanist, members were patrician
• Rulers: Elizabeth I: shrewd. Henry II: conquered Ireland. Charles: beheaded.
• Politics: Bill of Rights. Glorious Revolution. Cabinet System.
⬢ Politics: beaurocracy
⬢ Finances: permanent taxation
⬢ Wars: 7yrs war
⬢ Society: strict military society
⬢ Culture: obedience = highest virtue
⬢ Rulers: military obsessed
Russia: Absolute Monarchy
• Politics: serfdom, brutal, new capital
• Finances: “beard tax”
• Wars: Ivan’s rule by terror
• Society: hostile to Peter’s westernization of Russia
• Culture: Peter tried to change it to make it more western.
• Rulers: Ivan the Terrible: brutal, cruel ruler. Peter the Great: brilliant and strong.
Martin Luther
Father of the Reformation in Germany, and challenged Church teachings. He was excommunicated in 1520.
Council of Trent
⬢ The meeting of Catholic bishops and cardinals to discuss the beliefs of the Catholic Church and create, in their own way, a good reformation of their own ways.
Protestant beliefs
Sola Scriptura
Only part of the Bible
Free only to do evil
Priesthood of believers
bread and wine are representative
No purgatory
do not pray to saints
Catholic beliefs
Scripture and Tradition
The full bible
One decides whether Heaven or hell
Purgatory is existant
Catholicism is the full faith, but all Christians are baptized the same
Catholic priesthood
Ming Dynasty
A Chinese dynasty that ruled from 1368-1644, the Age of Exploration
Zheng He was from this era, and he traveled to Southeast Asia and India to trade with the Natives there. The goods that he brought with him on his journey impressed the world, and China became known for its unusual and valuable goods. It also expanded China’s tribute system.
Choson Dynasty
Also known as the Yi dynasty, and ruled for 518 years.
Accomplishments included: the alphabet “hangul”, abolishing private armies, revised legislation, created Sinmun office for those who felt cheated by the gov’t, centralized administration system based on Confucianism, Confucianism as a major religion, metal printing press, and that commerce was more driven to promote agriculture.
Japan- Nobunaga
A brutal and ambitious Japanese daimyo who took over much of Japan “by force” (according to his personal motto) and sought to unify Japan. Sadly, he was unable to do so.
Western Interaction
Portuguese traders with many new and interesting devices and ideas arrived in Japan in 1543. They were graciously welcomed into the country. Christian missionaries followed, and they were welcomed at first but then banned from the country. The ruler found them troublesome as so many Japanese began to convert. Soon, they derived a close-country policy that banned outsiders from the country. Only Dutch and Japanese traders were allowed in the only international port in Nagasaki.
A type of Japanese drama in which music, dance, and mime were used to present stories.
Only men could participate.
Seven Year's War
Austria, France, Russia, and others vs. Prussia and Britain
Reason: Austria became allies with France, which scared Prussia. Prussia decided to sign a treaty with Britain, which also let off a chain effect. Soon, every great European power was involved in the war.
Glorious Revolution
William of Orange, Prince of the Netherlands, and his wife, Mary overthrew Mary’s father, James II of England because he was Catholic and appointing Catholics to places of power. They were Protestant. It was a bloodless revolution.
Exporers and Conquistador for Europe
• Christopher Columbus: explorer for Spain who discovered the Americas
• Hernan Cortez: Spain’s first conquistador, who burned his ships when he arrived in Mexico to prevent his men from turning back.
• Francisco Pizzaro: Spanish conquistador who conquered the mighty Incan Empire. His men strangled the Incan king and conquered the land of the Incans without any trouble, because the people of the empire had fled.
• Prince Henry: Prince of Portugal who set up a navigation school
• Bartolomeu Diaz: “God, Glory, and Gold” Portuguese explorer who reached Asia.
• Vasco De Gama: Protuguese sailor who reached the tip of Africa and ended his journey in Calicut, India
Reasons for Exploration
⬢ GOD- want to spread Christianity
⬢ GLORY- want for glory for their own country
⬢ GOLD- knowledge of the wealth that lay in foreign lands
Sailing Instruments
⬢ Caravel boat with triangular sails (sail effectively against the wind), larger cargo area, and improved rudder.
⬢ Navigation School instituted by Prince Henry
⬢ Compass
⬢ Sextant- measures the height of the stars above the ho
Treaty of Tordesillas
⬢ A 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal
⬢ Neglected to concern the natives of that land, and dismissed whatever civilization they had concocted as less than that of Portugal and Spain. Was, in essence, condescending toward those civilizations.
• A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it.
• An extension of the condescending “Treaty of Tordesillas”
Triangle Trade System
⬢ The transatlantic trading network along which slaves and other goods were carried between Africa, England, Europe, the West Indies, and the colonies in North America
Columbian Exchange
⬢ A global transfer of plants, animals, and diseases that occurred during the European colonization of the Americas
Scientific Method
⬢ Observation
⬢ Question
⬢ Hypothesis
⬢ Experiment
⬢ Results
⬢ Conclusio
the sun is at the center of the universe (heliocentric)
pendulum theory, falling objects accelerate at a predictable rate, telescope, Jupiter has 4 moons, Sun as a dark spot, and the earth’s moon has a rough and uneven surface.
the same force affects all movements of the planets equally
Revolutionary Ideas
• Science is determined by observation and scientific reasoning, rather than tradition.
• The separation of powers into legislative, executive, and judicial is more effective than an absolute monarchy
• Monarchs exist to serve the state, not the state to serve the monarch.
• Colonists can exert their right to become independent, rather than staying subjects to the king.
• The government’s power comes from the consent of the governed.
⬢ Checks and Balances: that each section of power (legislative, executive, and judicial) should keep the other 2 powers in check. One power should never completely take over the government, nor have more power than the other two.
John Locke
⬢ People can learn from their mistakes and improve themselves. Everyone, no matter their status, is born with the right to three things
1. Life
2. Liberty
3. Property
And the purpose of the government is to protect these three fundamental rights. If the government does not do this, the citizens of that country have the right and responsibility to overthrow it.
First settlement in north America was
British colonists believed in _________ statement, which sparked their revolutionists ideas
John Locke's
Taxation without Representation
what the colonists in North America claimed happened to them- that the government taxed them, but they didn't have a representative in government
Declaration of Independence
Issued July 4th, 1776
"absolved from all allegience to the British crown"
The Bill of Rights
ten origional ammendments to the Constitution
Commercial Revolution
The expansion of business that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries
The three Estates
First: clergy
Second: Nobility
Third: Commoners
⬢ Machine that decapitated criminals and victims during the French revolution. It was meant to be a humane way of killing with as little pain as possible. It killed 2,100 people during the Revolution.
Reasons for the Revolution
⬢ Enlightenment views brought French commoners to see the injustices of the French government. When they were kicked out of the General Assembly, they met in a tennis court to swear the tennis court oath, which forbid them from leaving the court until they had drawn up a new constitution.
⬢ The King, fearing the third estate, called for the Swiss Guards in Paris to guard him from a revolution. The French saw this as a call for foreigners to come and massacre French citizens. They stormed the Bastille for gunpowder and weapons and began the revolution.
Congress of Vienna
⬢ An eight-month congress called to ensure stability and security for all of Europe in 1814.
National Assembly
• The third estate delegate’s name for themselves as they passed laws and reforms in the name of the French people. It represented the end to absolute monarchy and the beginning of democracy.
Declaration of the Rights of Man
French version of the Declaration of Independence
Reign of Terror
⬢ The period, from mid 1793 to mid 1794 when Maximilien Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed in a wave of mass terror and fear.
Napoleon's Rise to power
Napoleon pretended to be constitutionally chosen as leader of a free republic. The overwhelmingly positive voting of the constitution gave Napoleon all of his power. He signed a paper restoring the Church in France as an influence to the state, giving him the support of the clergy and peasants. His system of laws, the Napoleonic Code, took away all of women’s rights and restricted the freedom of speech and press, but they were passed nonetheless. He was crowned supreme emperor. During his rule, with the support of Russia, he conquered much of Europe.
Defeat of Napoleon Boneparte
Napoleon made the error of attacking Russia, his only ally and a greater power than himself. He also made enemies with England by ordering a blockade around them. Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Sweden joined forces against Napoleon, and his empire collapsed.
Concert of Europe
A series of alliances that assured nations that other nations would help out the other if another revolution occurred.
Revolutions in Europe and Latin America
1. Rise of Nationalism : The belief that one’s loyalty should not be to one’s king or empire, but to a nation of people who share a common history and culture. Rose greatly in Europe after the French revolution, especially in the Balkan Penninsula (Greece)
2. Prussia- King wouldn’t listen to the citizen’s complaints about the government being unable to deal with the shortage of food and crop failure. They revolted in the streets, and after a great battle with the king, he announced that from that point forward, Prussia was merged with Germany.
3. Venezuela- Venezuelans declared independence from Spain in 1811, but fought many battles afterward. They surprised the Spanish troops in Bogota and won decisively. Afterward, Simon Bolivar, who was the leader of the Venezuelan Revolution, met with Jose de San Martine to free the rest of South America from Spanish rule.
4. Brazil- they were free, but after the French Revolution, the Portuguese government decided that they wanted to make Brazil a colony again. They begged the Prince of Portugal to rule Brazil as a Brazilian prince, completely unconnected to Portugal, and he accepted .Therefore, they won a bloodless revolution.
• emphasized inner feelings/emotions
• focused on the mysterious and supernatural, also on the odd, exotic, and grotesque or horrifying
• celebrated the beauties of untamed nature
• idealized the past as a simpler and nobler time
• glorified heroes and heroic actions
• cherished folk traditions, music, and stories
• valued the common people and the individual
• promoted radical change and democracy
Famous romanticists include the Grimm Brothers, Lord Byron, George Sand, William Blake, John Constable, etc.
This era started at the beginning of the 19th century (1800’s)
a movement of literature and visual arts that
• tried to show life as it is, not as it should be
• reflected the increasing political importance of the working class, not nobility
• was influenced by the improvement of the sciences and technology
Famous Realists include: Ludwig Von Beethoven, Honore de Balzac, Emilie Zola, Charles Dickins, etc.
Europe shifted from Romanticism to Realism in the mid-1800’s (19th century)
Napoleon's plans in relation to Prussia
Prussia had many borders as well as the coast of the Baltic Sea from which to launch attacks. His final defeat took place in Russia, which he invaded. (previous to this invasion, Russia was one of France’s only allies.)
Causes and Effects of the French Revolution
Third Estate was discriminated against in politics, King and Queen were enjoying riches while peasants paid many taxes, King Louis could not deal with economic and social difficulties of France
Napoleon Bonaparte rises to power and begins his empire. Third estate gains more power. Powers are separated in government into Legislative, Executive, and Judicial. Other countries worldwide see that this revolution had positive affects and begin to contemplate the possibility of their own revolution.
Causes and Effects of the Brazilian Revolution
After the French Revolution, Portugal decided that they wanted to take Brazil back as a colony. Brazil wanted to remain a free country, so they signed a petition asking the Prince of Portugal to become the leader of Brazil (as its own country
Prince of Portugal becomes leader of the independent country of Brazil.

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