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Psych 129c exam 2 material


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Clinicians can both ___________ and _________ actual pathology given their understanding of the cultural context of their clients' behavior.
culturally normative belief
A belief that is normal in a particular culture, but not all cultures.
Judging normative behavior within a specific cultural context to reflect more pathology than is actually the case.

-error of failing to consider the client's cultural context
Minimizing error or underpathologizing
Judging abnormal behavior within a specific cultural context to reflect more normative behavior than is the case.

-error of taking into account cultural factors without taking into account the applicability of such factors for the specific client.
Cultural Competence
The ability of the therapist to move between two cultural perspectives in understanding the culturally based meaning of clients from diverse backgrounds.
One of the 4 aspects of treatment that require that require are cultural competence approach.

--"Refers to establishing a working relationship with the family; in this domain the family agrees to work with the practitioner and receive help...Involves definition of the problem and the helper model"
- helper model, problem definition
- treating the patient by listening to what they believe what the problem is
One of the 4 aspects of treatment that require that require are cultural competence approach.

--"...requires the application of two sets of culture-specific norms, that of the mainstream culture and that of the client's culture."
- clinical judgment, psych testing
- decide whether you give a patient an English test or Spanish test (e.g.)
One of the 4 aspects of treatment that require that require are cultural competence approach.

--"Refers to the explanatory models used to explain a person's or family's functioning and, correspondingly, how therapy works to affect behavior change."
-underlying presenting problems
- asking what the problem means to the patient, then discuss it with them
One of the 4 aspects of treatment that require that require are cultural competence approach.

--"procedures clinicians use to facilitate behavior change in patients and families." (frequently tied to theoretical orientation)
- methods and procedure
- be open to using cultural healers, frame intervention in terms of the patient’s culture
- again listen and ask what the problem is, be open to involve culture specific healers. Frame the type of intervention you’re giving in culture specific terms
when you change your social surroundings, you have to tie your ethnic identity to your new social context
The Helper Model
Refers to the conceptualization that the family and the clinician have for the clinician's role in assisting the family to achieve its goals
Definition of the problem (engagement)
The therapist is able to maintain his/her formulation of the problem an attempt to consider simultaneously both the lay and professional perspectives in the early phases of the therapy

Culture specific:
Client or culture derived

DSM-IV or clinician derived
symbolic racism
the unspoken, covert, differential treatment of members of minority groups by members of the mainstream culture
institutionalized racism
maintained by legal barriers that barred children of color from access to certain institutions (e.g.)
Zero-sum group conflict
Jobs given to minorities (e.g.) at the expense of jobs for my group

Zero-sum describes a situation in which a participant's gain or loss is exactly balanced by the losses or gains of the other participant(s). It is so named because when the total gains of the participants are added up, and the total losses are subtracted, they will sum to zero. Chess and Go are examples of a zero-sum game - it is impossible for both players to win.
Conceptual Issue 1: Shifting Cultural Lenses
The ethnographer’s focus moves back and forth. The task is to interpret patterns of meaning within situations understood in experience-near categories; yet ethnographers also bring with them a liberating distance that comes from their own experience-near categories and their existential appreciation of share human conditions. (p. 278)Kleinman & Kleinman

-Zooming in and understanding the patient's perspective; local concerns
Conceptual Issue 2: Towards a Shared Narrative
“Conceptualizing the therapy encounter as a shared co-constructed narrative can serve as a guidepost regarding the optimal degree of integrating the patient’s and clinician’s cultural perspectives. The key question then is not the degree of integration between the patient’s and clinician’s cultural perspectives. What matters is that the patient and clinician are working from the same narrative.”
When Both Parties Modify their Views: The Conflict
Presenting Problem: A 3 year-old girl from a Cree community in Canada had frequent convulsions and partial paralysis. The patient was treated with antibiotics and an anti-convulsant.
Alternative View: At the request of the father, a Cree Medicine Man saw the child and explained the illness as being related to teething problems when a child is bottle fed and whether saliva remains in the body. The cure is to apply an herb that causes diarrhea that will remove the saliva from the child’s system.
Conflict: He insisted that all Western medicine be stopped for 3 days prior to applying the herbal remedy which lasts for 4 days. The physician would not agree to stop the anti-convulsant.
At a Second Meeting: Towards a Shared Narrative (O’Neal, 1988)
Biomedical View: the physician explained that the anticonvulsant was not curative; it only treated a symptom. He argued that its continued use may not disrupt the curative powers of the herbal medicine.
Native Healer’s View: The Medicine Man agreed. He later confided that he thought his medicine was much stronger and would render inactive the anticonvulsant.
Outcome: 4 days of treatment with the herbal medicine, the child showed a dramatic improvement. Both the cerebral edema and paralysis disappeared.
Interpretation: Although all of the parties had different explanations for the child’s recovery, they agreed upon a shared treatment.
Behavioral Indicators of Shifting Lenses: Helper Model
Assess who they have sought help from in the past. (get a sense of their expectations)
Who have you sought help from in the past for this problem? They could include health professionals or counselors or even friends or relatives.
Assess what they did.
Who was most helpful? What did they do?
Who was least helpful? Why?
Assess ongoing contact with a given helper.
Do you still see any one of the past helpers?
What do you find particularly helpful?
Marital or Personal Problem?
Case from student-therapist:
A 41-year old man requested an emergency session in regard to his marriage. He spoke with an Asian accent, and identified himself as half Chinese and half Spanish. He was born in China.
As we discussed his presenting problem, he resisted any of my suggestions that perhaps he had a relationship issue. He instead blamed the problem on himself (Lopez et al., 1989)
Behavioral Indicators of Shifting Lenses: Problem Definition
Provide space in clinical encounter for clients to describe presenting problem(s) in their terms.
Tell me in your own words what brought you here?
Okay that is how your doctors describe your problem. In your own words, how would you describe the problem?
Be sure to identify idiomatic expressions and inquire as to its meaning.
You said you had “nervios” and a “breakdown.”
Could you describe to me what it is like when you have “nervios” or a “breakdown”?
Assess how others in their community describe the problem?
What does your family think is happening to you?
What do they call your problem?
“Subjects” as Colleagues
“... it would be wise to allow our “subjects” to slip out of their roles as passive “assessees” or “testees” and to enroll them, at least sometimes, as active colleagues who are the best experts on themselves and are eminently qualified to participate in the development of descriptions and predictions--not to mention decisions--about themselves.”(p. 249)
Mischel (1977)
Theoretical Conceptions of Schizophrenia
20 Spanish-speaking key relatives of a person with schizophrenia
90% implicated an illness (e.g., mal del cerebro)
90% implicated environmental stressor (e.g., un divorcio dificil, estudió demasiado)
40% implicated religious or spiritual matters (e.g., solo Díos sabe por qué)

(Weisman, Gomes & Lopez, 2003)
Behavioral Indicators of Shifting Lenses: Theory
Provide space for clients to explain in their terms the reasons for their problems.
Tell me in your own words why you think you developed this problem?
Okay have you considered other possible explanations? What might they be?
Assess how others in their community explain the problem?
What does your family think of these reasons?
Do they have other explanations?
Share your explanation for the presenting problem and ask them what they think of that reason.
I have worked with people with similar problems and I learned that negative thinking is at the heart of the problem. Might that apply to you as well?

-Challenge negative thinking - "How many times have you died when you had those thoughts?"
Behavior Family Treatment (BFT) of Schizophrenia
Developed from expressed emotion research—reduce family negativity (Falloon et al., 1982)
Communication training
Problem Solving
With Spanish-speaking found that low acculturated Latinos did worse with BFT than patients who received usual treatment (Telles et al., 1995)
Authors raised questions about cultural congruence—communication skills
Behavioral Indicators of Shifting Lenses: Methods
Provide space for clients to explain in their terms the methods that they have tried in the past.
You mentioned that you had this problem in the past. Are there things you have tried that have helped you? What are they? When was the last time you tried that? What happened?
Assess how others in their community treat the problem.
Have people you know received this kind of treatment?
What was their reaction?
Share your approach to treating this kind of problem and ask them what they think of it
I have learned that working to change negative thinking has helped others with the kind of problem you are having? What would think about that approach?
Problem with Taking Client’s Perspective into Account Across All Domains
Patient’s definition may overlook important clinical matters
Clinician can not work within client’s prior helper model, theoretical framework, or methodological approach—outside of his/her area of expertise
What do you do?
Describe in clients terms but use your approach?
Try to convince patient of how your approach is better?
Cultural Competence Is an Ongoing Process of
Establishing collaborative relationships
Grounding one’s understanding of patients in their local social world through narratives not on assumptions based on ethnicity or race.
Shifting between patients’/families’ and practitioners’ perspectives
problem definition
intervention theory and method
Working towards shared narratives
Empirically Supported Treatment (EST) & Cultural Competence
Shifting cultural lenses is a heuristic (no data) model though we will be testing it soon.
Need empirical approaches—Current direction
Develop new treatments based on basic research
Test existing empirically validated approach with culturally diverse groups (no adaptation)
Test adaptation of empirically validated approach with culturally diverse groups
Carry out conceptual analysis to empirically validated approach
1. From Basic Research to New Treatments
Use psychopathology research that suggests important cultural processes to develop new treatments and then evaluate them.
Example—Family warmth predicts relapse for Mexican immigrants
Existing family treatment focuses on reducing negativity, e.g., Behavioral Family Treatment
Develop module that increases family connections
Spend time together, carry out fun activities
2. Apply EST with Patients from Minority Group
Just because treatment has not been studied with minority group doesn’t mean it won’t work. Should be tested.
If it works then no need for adaptation. If it does not work then adaptation may be needed.
Example, Behavior Family Treatment with Spanish-speaking. Did not work for low acculturated Latinos suggesting adaptation.
Limitation to research—didn’t measure treatment process
3. Cultural Modification of EST: Social and Independent Living Skills (Kopelowicz, 1997)
Behaviorally based social skills training was adapted for Spanish-speaking patients with schizophrenia for three months
Medication management module
Symptom management module
Main cultural modification was the inclusion of patient’s family members as coaches
13 group sessions within clinic
A few home visits to facilitate generalization
Patients randomly assigned to usual care and experimental treatment group
4. Critical Evaluation of EST from Model of Cultural Competence (CC)
Take and EST and evaluate whether it is consistent with defined model of cultural competence.
Advantage, inexpensive. It is strictly a conceptual evaluation that can be performed by reviewing EST in detail (treatment manual) and CC model.
Disadvantage, it is simply a well reasoned guess. No data are collected to demonstrate whether the EST can cross cultures effectively.
Example, McFarlane’s Multifamily Group Treatment of schizophrenia
Similar to BFT with multiple families
Believes that support from other family helps
Learning from other sons/parents
Is Multifamily Group Treatment of Schizophrenia Culturally Competent?
Don’t know, need to carry out clinical trial with different ethnic groups.
However, a systematic review of the treatment from shifting cultural lenses perspective suggests it has great potential for cross-cultural application
Our review provides a systematic conceptual analysis of how to consider cultural applicability of existing treatment:
Respects the possibility for cultural differences
Respects available evidenced-based approaches
El Duke
“The Cubans don’t seem as rigid in their teaching methods”, Blakeley said. “If a guy has a certain way of doing things and it works, they don’t coach him out of it like they do here.” Orange County Register, 10-29-99, p.5
Conclusion of Culture and Intervention
We have provided a model of cultural competence—shifting cultural lenses—that is based on research but has not yet been shown to be effective. But it has promise.
We have briefly reviewed some ways that we can assess whether a given treatment is or has the potential to be culturally competent.
The growing diversity of our nation requires us to be prepared to treat folks of all backgrounds.
We should challenge developers of treatment to demonstrate that treatments are effective for diverse communities.
However, we should not assume just because a treatment was developed on mainstream populations that it has little relevance for minority communities.
Acculturation Research
What is acculturation?
1. common every day use.
2. Consistent with some research: Hahm et al define acculturation as “process by which an ethnic group gradually changes it behaviors and attitudes to be more like those of the host society.”
3. Notice the psychological nature of culture change (behavior and attitudes). Little mention of social world.

4. Notice assumption of linear model
Acculturation & Mental Health
Literature Review (Rogler et al., 1992)
Positive relationship—more acculturation more mental health problems
Negative relationship—more acculturation less mental health problems
Inverted V—persons between cultures have more mental health problems
Acculturation & Mental Health cont’d (Specific Study)
Specific Study: Asian American teenage youth and alcohol use (Hahm et al. 2003)
Predicted positive relationship: more acculturation more drinking.
But also predicted that parental attachment could serve to reduce likelihood of drinking of high acculturation
Large epidemiological study of multiple Asian American groups (“Filipinos” largest subsample 44% of 714).
Acculturation & Mental Health cont’d (Method)
Acculturation measured by youth place of birth (US or abroad) and language (English or no English at home)
Came up with presumed acculturation continuum: US born/home English (high) to Foreign born/home not English (low)
Notice assumption of linear model

low high

Drinking—self-report, any drinking in last year
Acculturation & Mental Health cont’d (Findings)
Higher acculturated reported more drinking than low acculturated.
Parental attachment moderated relationship--Those high in acculturation with strong parental attachment did not differ in drinking of those from lower acculturated group.
Interpretation—parental attachment can serve to reduce likelihood of drinking of hi acculturated.
Parental attachment may not be related to drinking of lower acculturated because embedded in “Asian” culture of parental control and monitoring.
C. Acculturation & Mental Health cont’d (Limitations)
weakness of linear model, can’t distinguish between bicultural and marginal strategy

Global measure of acculturation—language and place of birth tell us little about the specific aspects of acculturation.
Doesn’t consider context (high or low Asian community?)
Strength—included specific parental variable that might be related to acculturation
don’t feel accepted by the host culture, and don’t feel part of your original culture

Marginality – low identification with both the majority and the minority group
Stereotypes effect the way we make judgments
- primed people to think about a concept without deliberately telling them
- priming stereotype only works for the group that the stereotype is traditionally associated with (women and dependence; men and aggression)
Having strong affiliation with two cultures (opposite of marginal)
Acculturation Reconceptualized
What is acculturation
Cultural and psychological change brought about by contact with other people belonging to different cultures
Note that host (majority) culture as well as immigrant (minority) culture can change and that acculturation does not require immigration
minority and majority group contact (nonimmigrants)
prior to immigration
B. Contrasts with (traditional) assimilation
1. One of Berry’s four acculturation strategies.
2. Assimilation refers to adopting other group’s cultural background/identity and rejecting one’s own
Acculturation Strategies
A. Examples
1. Ricky Ricardo—bicultural
2. Facundo Cabral—”No soy de aqui Ni soy de alla.” marginalization
B. Berry’s Conceptual Model
1. Two main issues
a. Acceptance/rejecting one’s own group
b. Accepting/rejecting new group
2. Four main strategies
a. Assimilating (Lo own, Hi new)
b. Maintaining both cultures (Hi own, Hi new) [Integration/Bicultural]
c. Separating (Hi own, Lo new)
d. Marginalization (Lo own, Lo new)
Acculturation Strategies (continued) Important point
Important Point—Berry’s model moves away from linear notion of acculturation (low to high) by invoking dimensional notion (e.g., American and Chinese)
1. weakness of linear model, can’t distinguish between bicultural and marginal strategy
2. strength of dimensional model, can make distinction
3. Current dimensional models go beyond group models and consider language, ethnic identity, customs and practices as dimensions
4. Advantage: acculturation varies by dimension
Research that Reflects Dynamic Nature: Japanese Brazilians or the gaijin (foreigners)
Main point: Bicultural persons return to “homeland” and feel unaccepted. Strong Japanese identity decreases and less strong Brazilian identity increases
2. Notice that it is not about alternating identities—contrary to La Fromboise et al. It’s about decreasing one and increasing the other. Why?
3. Note the role of subjective versus objective discrimination
4. Note methodology: ethnography, thick description, rich analysis but questions of reliability and validity
5. Implications for policy: what policies can facilitate acculturation/assimilation?
alternating identities
Quotes from alternating biculturals include: “I put
myself as a mixture. It works as me accepting some of their culture and I keep my culture too”
“you are not as American as another White person” (Phinney & Devich-Navarro, 1997).
Integrated biculturals identify with both cultures, yet keep the two cultural identities separate and
report that it is easier to be either ethnic or mainstream but hard to be both at the same time
(Vivero & Jenkins, 1999). Integrated biculturals are very aware of the variability of their two
cultural identities and exhibit competence in switching their behaviors between cultures
Key Points
Acculturation/Racial-Ethnic Identity
Acculturation Strategies Model
not focus of study but can be applied
but suggests a richer conceptual model than the linear model associated with most research.
Context matters
In Brazil Japanese held in high regard (positive minorities).
In Japan, they felt their Japaneseness was devalued (negative minorities)
Identity is dynamic (changes)
Japanese Brazilians—became less Japanese and more Brazilian in Japan
In both positive (Brazil) and negative directions (Japan).
Key Points
Everyday use of the notion of acculturation is limited.
Hard to observe complexity when viewing acculturation from dominant cultural model of assimilation in the United States.
Future quantitative research will demonstrate some of complexity noted in qualitative research.
Ethnic Identity: An aspect of acculturation
Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure
1. Established measure of ethnic identity that cuts across groups
2. Examined relationship of ethnic identify across groups:
a. High school Blacks (3.0), Asians (2.9) and Latinos (2.9) higher ethnic identity than Whites (2.4)
b. College, Blacks (3.5) higher than Latinos (3.1), and Whites (2.9), but not Asians (3.0)
3. Examined relationship to self esteem
a. Minority students’ ethnic identity ↑ self esteem
b. Not true for white college studts but true for white HS studts (who were a minority in their schools)
4. Evaluation
a. Advantage—common metric across groups
b. Disadvantage—doesn’t capture specific ways groups identify (language, dance)
Contextual anchors of identity-Remooring
What happens to social (ethnic) identity given change in context?
Salience or how much ones group stands out may play a role: For example, those who come from largely minority communities and attend largely white institutions may find their group background salient and thus increase identification.
What’s the role of social supports? Other people from the same background or institutional supports may help maintain identity. Referred to as remooring, shifting cultural docks.
What happens to identity given threats to identity? Group related esteem becomes more negative?
Hispanic first year students in Ivy league schools.
Longitudinal design: Assessment was carried out three times during first year.
Ethnic identity
Collective self-esteem: e.g., “In general, I’m glad I’m Hispanic.
Perceptions of threat to ethnic identity: e.g., “I can not talk to my friends at school about my family or my culture.
Ethnic involvement: e.g., language spoken at home, parents’ place of birth
Main findings
Main point—What happens with change in context? Ethnic identity tied to cultural background but over first year of college the anchor shifts from family/community to college experiences.
Time 1
family background  ethnic identity
Time 2 & 3
Involvement in Hispanic activities  ethnic identity
Difference in paths
Those high in cultural background (community, friends) seek ethnic friends in college which serves to heighten identity
Those low in cultural background (ambivalence, from less “hispanic” neighborhoods), did not seek such activities and showed a decrease in Hispanic identification.
Didn’t examine American/mainstream identity (Recall importance of Berry’s conception of bicultural view)
Brought in mainstream theory (Social identity theory)
Longitudinal study: able to demonstrate dynamic nature
Naturalistic design
Student Panel on Identity
A. Acculturation and identity are rich areas of study that are much more complex than we typically consider in our every day lives.
B. Dynamic—changes over time
C. Contextually situated
D. We need to think with greater precision as scientists and in our daily lives about what specific aspect of acculturation or identity matters in the specific context.
Identity and Intergroup Relations
LA Times (12.3.06)
UCLA defeats USC
Case of D’Juan Farmer one of 96 African Ams (Afrikan student union - black wednesday)
Example of remooring
Fire Department and racism/sexism
Perceptions of discrimination; silence
Symbolic sexism; men’s views
Definition of Terms (from text)
Symbolic Racism
"refer to beliefs about a group of people that give insufficient attention to individual differences among the group’s members." (p. 198) Also, refer to categories about people or shortcut ways of thinking about others. (p. 199)
"refers to the emotional component of people's reactions to other groups. It involves not only a set of beliefs about others, which are captured in stereotypes, but it is also a deeply felt set of feelings about what is good and bad, right and wrong, moral and immoral... they more often refer to the very negative feelings about others" (P. 208-209).
Racism--"centers on the belief that, given the simple fact that individuals were born into a certain outgroup, those individuals are inferior on some dimensions as intelligence, morals, and an ability to interact in decent society" (P. 214)
Symbolic Racism—“certain people hold negative views about outgroups, not because they believe in their inferiority, but because they feel that the outgroup is interfering with important aspects of their culture--the symbols of their culture: welfare and immigration, for example, may be judged to threaten our society.
Normal Processes?
Stereotyping thought to be part of normal every day processes, pertains to everyone and is, in part, the result of functioning with limited cognitive resources.
Can one consider prejudice to be part of normal every day processes, pertaining to everyone?
Do we prejudge others on the basis of group membership, do we have deep seated feelings for other groups?
Can we grow up in our society not being prejudiced?
Even having some prejudice against our own groups?
Implicit Stereotyping (Banaji, Hardin et al. 1993)
Stereotypes are “in the air that you breathe”
Via the media and in everyday life occurrences
Take place at the unconscious level
Social category accessibility
Past experiences with members of particular groups…leave traces that may affect later reactions to similar others
Priming task: unscramble sentences (aggressive themes or dependence themes)
Judgment task: how aggressive/dependent is person
Manipulate gender of target person
Priming outside of “awareness”; unrelated tasks
Implicit Stereotyping
Priming Tasks
Main task: Unscramble sentence to make complete sentence
Three priming conditions
Aggression prime (30 aggressive behaviors and 15 neutral behaviors)
R people the other threatens
L passed when the accelerates
Dependence prime (30 dependence behaviors & 15 neutral)
M home at leaves never
S married the unhappily stays
Neutral prime (45 neutral behaviors)
J street the crossed of
Implicit Stereotyping
Summary of Findings & Evaluation
Judgments of a target whose social category was stereotypically associated with primed information was judged more extremely after exposure to primes compared with a control condition of neutral primes.
Pertained equally to men and women subjects.
Target social category does not always influence evaluation, depends on domain relevance (e.g., gender and dependence) not other domains (e.g., cultured, educated)
Strengths—theoretically informed, experimental manipulation
Weaknesses—limited ecological validity
Implicit Stereotyping
Insidious nature of stereotypes
Priming takes place in many situations, ethnic and gender-based jokes, media, movies
If at the unconscious level, even good educational interventions may not work given that process exists outside of awareness
“…importance to change the material conditions within which (psychological) stereotyping processes emerge and thrive.”
boycotting ethnic jokes?
challenge gender stereotypic depictions?
Identity & Intergroup Attitudes In College (Sidanius et al.,)
What’s the effect of participation in ethnic student organizations on campus?
Multicultural Perspective
↑ ethnic identity
↓ intergroup biases
Social identity theory
↑ ethnic identity
↑ intergroup biases
Might similar processes apply to white students who are members of Greek system?
Main hypothesis tested:
Participation -> identity -> intergroup biases
Identity & Intergroup Attitudes In College (Sidanius et al.,)
Longitudinal Study at UCLA
Summer orientation program 1996 and follow-up each yr to 2000
Assessing participation in ethnic or Greek organizations (Frosh – Jr years) and relationship to identity and intergroup attitudes Senior year
Control for identity and intergroup attitudes at baseline or time 1
Advantage of longitudinal approach
Identify independent contribution of participation in organizations and intergroup attitudes over time
Unlike cross-sectional design
Participants (n = 2132)
Whites = 764; Asians = 758
Latinos = 466; African Americans = 144
Identity & Intergroup Attitudes In College (Sidanius et al.,)
Ethnic activism
University identification
Ethnic prejudice
Intergroup bias
Miscegenation opposition
Perceived group conflict
Ethnic victimization
Perceived zero-sum group conflict
Identity & Intergroup Attitudes In College (Sidanius et al.,)
Main Points
“Minority ethnic organizations tend to serve as ethnic enclaves for minority students.”
“Sororities and fraternities tend to serve as ethnic enclaves for White students.”
Identity & Intergroup Attitudes In College (Sidanius et al.,)
Significant associations at senior years
Minorities Whites
Ethnic Org. Greek

Ethnic Activism 
Univ. Identification w

Ethnic Prejudice
Intergroup bias
Miscegenation Opposition w

Perceived Group Conflict
Ethnic Victimization  
Perceived Zero-Sum Conflict 
Identity & Intergroup Attitudes In College (Sidanius et al.,)
Main Points 2
Membership in minority ethnic organizations for ethnic minority students had significant effects over time on
ethnic activism
ethnic victimization,
perceived zero-sum conflict
had no effects on intergroup bias
Membership in Greek organizations for white students had significant effects over time on
identification with UCLA
opposition to intergroup dating and marriage
ethnic victimization
Identity & Intergroup Attitudes In College (Sidanius et al.,)
Final Points
Main Hypothesis is largely supported:
Participation -> identity -> intergroup biases
Consistent with social identity theory—for both minority and white students, effects of membership on ethnically oriented student organizations on intergroup attitudes were at least partially mediated by ethnic identity.
In other words, membership was associated with increase in identity which was associated with increase in various attitudes.
Identity & Intergroup Attitudes In College (Sidanius et al.,)
Evaluation and Implications
longitudinal design
minority groups and whites
ecological validity
only self report measures, no behavioral measures
limited to one institution, UCLA
What might be done?
positive—ethnic and greek clubs promote identity.
negative—leads to increased sense of victimization and perceived intergroup conflict
Perceptions of Prejudice (Lopez)
Journal examples
Lopez et al. examined minority students attributions of prejudice in ambiguous hypothetical transgressions
Outgroup instigator (White)
Ingroup instigator (Minority)
Hypothesized that outgroup instigator would be judged as being more prejudiced than ingroup instigator.
Hypothesized that alternative explanations would play less of role in judgments of outgroup instigator than ingroup instigator
Explored relationship of ethnic identity and prior experience with discrimination to attributions of prejudice
Party Scenario (Ingroup instigator, Self perception)
Imagine that you have a good friend who happens to be white. You have always been nice to her and she feels comfortable with you. You belong to an organization of people from your ethnic group and you invite her to one of the ethnic organization's parties. You get a little drunk. You and your friends joke around and begin making fun of her and make a racial joke. She replies by stereotyping you and your friends also and everybody laughs. She still has a good time at the party, but she feels a little uncomfortable. After thinking about it, the next day she begins to feel bad about the comments you and your friends made and decides not to speak to you. You call her and want to know why she is upset. She tells you why and you tell her that she is being silly, that it was only a joke. You also point out that it had to do with you being drunk.
Dating Scenario (Outgroup instigator, person perception)
Imagine that your friend, who is of your same ethnic background, is in a study group with a man who happens to be white. Your friend finds him to be attractive. She gets to know him well and they start dating. After a few dates he calls to tell her that he can no longer see her. He mentions that he told his parents about his relationship with your friend. They told him that it was not a good idea to date women of other races and that it was better to date women of his own ethnic background. Your friend tells him that he should make his own decisions and not let his parents influence him. He tells your friend that he also never pictured himself dating someone from your friend's race. He further adds that none of his friends date such women. He says that he feels bad about the situation and would like to continue being a friend.
Summary of Findings (Lopez -- ingroup/outgroup prejudice)
Minority students tend to implicate alternative explanations more than prejudice, particularly for minority student instigator.
Minority students judge social interethnic social transgressions as more likely to reflect prejudice when instigator is white than minority.
Attributions of prejudice are associated with prior experience with discrimination--more experience, greater attributions of prejudice.
Prior experience with discrimination is associated with attributions of prejudice more for outgroup instigator than for ingroup instigator (overhead)
Implications and Discussion (Lopez -- ingroup/outgroup prejudice)
Interethnic transgressions create tension in ascribing prejudicial intent
Underattribute then risk being hurt
Overattribute risk offending others and decreasing credibility of claims
It is important to consider alternative hypotheses
Do these findings ring true for you?
Conclusions (Stereotypes and prejudice)
Stereotypes and prejudice are present in our lives
Have implications for all: whites, minorities, men, women, etc.
Research points out
complexities (e.g., increased ethnic identity has both positive and negative consequences)
underlying processes and suggests possible directions for intervention
“Color of fear” points out value of dialogue
Importance of challenging views and feelings that we hold as well as those that others hold.
Referring back to Banaji et al, What can we do “to change the material conditions within which (psychological) stereotyping processes (and prejudice) emerge and thrive.
Key Points of Overall Course
Culture matters but CUIDADO, be careful. Could be stereotyping and imposing your views of culture on others.
Researcher, helper or your daily lives.
How do you know?

Important to
go beyond ethnicity to assess culture—focus on what is at stake in local settings will help us get beyond ethnicity as marker for culture
consider alternative hypotheses to our observations—cultural, social, personal—shift lenses and test alternative hypotheses

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