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Child Development Exam 2


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Why is attachment so important to other areas of development?
-It is key to SOCIAL development
-it is important in emotional regulation
How are emotions biologically important?
-emotions can activate the fight or flight response
What are the basic components of emotions?
a) ?
b) ?
a) psychological aspects
b) physiological aspects
psychological aspects of emotion =
physiological aspects of emotion =
more OBJECTIVE, things like heart rate, blood pressure, hormones
How does emotional development play a role in MORAL development?
-The development of EMPATHY, is critical to moral development
example of emotional development leads to moral development =
-When you get hit it hurts, so therefore you should not hit others. Empathy has an AFFECTIVE (emotional) aspect.

-in the first video we saw in this section of the course, a baby boy hit his mother and she tried to explain to him that it was wrong morally because it "hurt" her. She expressed her pain saying "ouch" and pointing to where he hit her. Then later in the observed interaction between the mother and the child, the mother accidently hits the child with a magazine she is reading. He cries and says "ouch" and the mother comforts him and explains that the pain he feels is similar to what she experienced earlier. This helps the baby understand how his actions affect others.

*good question b/c video "life's first feelings" helps answer this
Infant temperment =
emotional reactivity

How emotionally reactive is the child?

May predict personality in the future
There is evidence that THIS plays a role in infant temperment:
How can the concept of niche picking be integrated into a theory of infant temperment and personality development?
If a child is naturally more OUTGOING, their temperment will get a different treatment than shy babies. They will get reenforcement of their particular temperment through passive or evocative niche picking
difficult to soothe child:
-aren't as nice to be around
-therefore parents don't give this child attention in the way they would to an outgoing "easy" child
-child may develop negative behaviors such as AGGRESSION
Easy Babies:

-what are their characteristics?
-what percentage of babies are considered "easy"?
-not fussy
-smile often
What percentage of babies are considered "difficult"
"Slow to warm" babies:
-take a while to become comfortable around strangers
-often don't get a lot of interactions and STIMULATIONS,
-They check out social situations before they get involved

example from videos? :
an infant temperment that stays steady through TIME and ACROSS SITUATIONS
Does infant temperment usually stay stable through TIME? or ACROSS SITUATION?
through time

My example: An infant may always be comfortable at church and this trait of even temperment would be expressed over time, but if the same infant were taken to a parade, they may exhibit an irritated temperment.
How is infant temperent linked to development of social skills?
infants will elicit from caregivers a certain response to their particular temperment

adults interact more often with precocious, outgoing, smiling, easy, babies
social conscious:
-- get info from article --
What is the ideal relationship between caregiver and infant?
a MUTUAL RECIPROCAL relationship

both mother and child interact with one another
If a child doesn't have THIS, he or she will likely develop abnormally
TRUST in caregiver
example of when/how trust may not develop:
Mothers with clinical depression may show a flat affect toward their infant. As we saw in the video, when an infant does not get a positive response (i.e. a smile etc.) the infant will become upset, disengage from the situation and then try one more time to get his mother's attention/smile. If the mother does not respond, the child will become visibly upset- tonguing, hiccuping, squirming and eventually crying...
another word for the feeling of trust an infant has with their caregiver:
"felt security"
It has been shown that children do not want to play with children who...
have emotional development problems -- particularly eratic behavior
an infant's ability to regulate his or her emotions is a good predictor of his or her:
success in the developmental proccess
emotional regulation:
imitating approapriate emotional states

inhibiting emotional states and

modulating emotional states
How can an infant regulate his or her emotions:
a) ?
b) ?
-through cognitive strategies
-through self soothing/physical response to emotions
emotion regulation is what type of phenomenon?
CASCADING: like opening flood gates, once the child begins to lose control of emotions, it is harder and harder to get them back the more the situation escalates
What is the KEY to emotion regulation?
That the child makes the transition from needing parental regulation of his or her emotions to SELF REGULATION
What is the goal of emotional regulation?
To become socially competent
Some techniques parents can teach children to help them regulate their own emotions: 1) 2)
1) cognitive strategies: positive thinking, take a deep breath, count to 10, leave emotionally provacative situation

2) self-soothing:

3) Distraction

4) Sharing feelings

5) Walking away
Something that is important to remember about a child's emotional development:

*Professor Anselmi made a big point of this!
All the things we've discussed are TIED TOGETHER. Children go through language acquisition, emotional development and social and cognitive development all at the same time
Emotional regulation can be thought of as a :
set of cognitive strategies
The meaning of and display of emotions is... (with respect to different cultures)
Culturally variable. Different cultures have different views of social competency.
Example of how views of/expectations for emotional development vary across cultures:
In Chinese culture, COMPLIANCE in children is highly valued. Therefore SHAME is a much more prominent emotion in that culture.

Japanese emphasize the importance of not overtly expressing emotions. They may feel the same emotions, but not exhibit them visibily/ostensibly
turn taking:
the "dance" between child and caregiver

smiling, cooing from baby, talking from mother, etc.
interactional synchrony:
Care givers need to be in synch with their children for positive development to occur.

most of this interactional synchrony is non-verbal
attachment and emotions are related how?
Attachment is both a) and b)
a) physical proximity
b) cognitive connectivity / FELT SECURITY
Attachment is connected to...
object/person permanence:

(rudimentary permanence)
child understands that objects and people exist even if they are not visible
how do psychologists study attachmennt?
1) animal models
2) clinical observations
3) naturalistic observations
examples of clinical observations:
children who lost parents in WWII, adopted and neglected infants in Romanian orphanages
what is a problem with the way psychologists study attachment?
CAUSATION can't be determined
Freud's theory of attachment is based on:
the pleasure principle
explanation fo Freud's theory of attachment:
-mostly between mother and child
-infant becomes attached to mother through breast-feeding
-Primary DRIVE: oral pleasure seeking
object-relation theory:
infant becomes attached to primary caregiver (object) and if attachment is successful, you can go on to PROJECT this onto more healthy relationships
2 problems with Freud's theory of attachment:
1) many woman don't breastfeed but infants still get attached to them
how is Freud's theory of attachment very deterministic?
Learning theory of attachment:
-feeding is again the CONTEXT where attachment is formed
-child's basic physiological needs are supplied by the caregiver
-caregiver is ASSOCIATED with a reduction in HUNGER
what is the mother's role in the "learning theory of attachment"?
-secondary-reenforcer ??? what does this mean exactly?
What is the primary drive in the "learning theory of attachement"?
What is the 1st re-enforcer in the "learning theory of attachment"?
relief of hunger I think
Harlows monkeys study:
-cloth monkeys and wire monkeys
-infants cuddled with cloth monkeys instead of getting food from wire monkeys
-infants preferred CONTACT COMFORT/CONTACT ATTACHMENT over hunger relief
What happened to the monkeys who were "raised" by wire monkeys in Harlow's study?
They had serious issues. Females showed no interest in sex. Those who were impregnated neglected their babies.
What does Harlow's study of monkeys show?
That FOOD IS NOT THE MAIN CAUSE of attachment
what is the main cause of attachment?
??? food or contact comfort--- depends on who you ask
What helped Harlow's monkeys raised by wire monkeys?
PEER THERAPY (wtf?) helped mitigate the negative effects
Bowlby's view of infant attachment:
What did Bowlby see as the biological basis of infant attachment?
--born with signaling behaviors for example like crying, smiling and cooing
signalling behaviors according to bowlby:
get the attention of caregivers
executive behaviors according to bowlby:
are meant to maintain contact with the caregiver (clinging)
What role do caregivers play in Bowlby's theory of attachment?
-they too are PREPROGRAMMED to respond to their infants
-they can hear their babies cry in a crowd for example... something like that
4 stages/phases of attachement
1) pre-attachment
2) Attachment in the making
3) Full blown attachment
4) Formation of reciprocal relationships
stage 1: Pre-Attachment
a) time period
b) aspects
a) Birth - 6 weeks
b) Caregiver stays close to infant, gives interactional support. Infant is not yet psychologically attached to a specific person. Seperaton axiety and stranger anxiety is not seen.
Why isn't stranger anxiety present in stage 1 of attachment:
because the infant is not yet attached to any specific person
Stage 2: Attachment in the making
a) time period
b) aspects
a) 6 weeks - 6-8 months
b) Child begins to behave differently to care givers. Sense of TRUST begins to develop. Child expects caregivers to behave in a certain way. Attachment is both building of psychological bond and of cognitive expectations
Stage 3: Full Blown Attachment:
a) 6-8 months - 2 years old
-use caregiver as secure base from which they can explore environments
-the whole notion of FELT SECURITY is that caregiver does not have to physically be there
Step 4: Formation of Reciprocal Relationships
a) 2 years on
-Development of language
-Frees child to communicate over time and space
-seperation anxiety decreases
-Toddlers begin to negotiate with mothers- persuasion
-Child learning how to manage their environments
Bowlby is not talking about:
-Bonding comes out of animal studies
-should not generalize to humans
is reciprocal play neccessary for attachment?
No. In some cultures reciprocal play does not occur but attachment still occurs
When is attachment most clearly displayed?
When child is in distress. They may attach to someone who is not who they would usually attach to.
When do we know the child has a healthy attachment?
When they can be INDEPENDENT, explore environment on own while checking in with mother but not being physically attached
Internal working model:

? confusing in notes
-came out of Bowlby's work
-the experiences of the 4 stages of attachment becomes part of our personality for the rest of our life (places a lot of responsibility on shoulders of parent)
-Set of expectations (cognitive) concerning the availability of attachment figures (AF)
-likelihood of support from attachment figures during stress and quality of interactions with AF
What researcher is related with the concept of the "internal working model"?
What is the "internal working model"?
It is set up by the experiences of the 4 phases.

It becomes a part of our personality for the rest of our lives
Does the concept of the "internal working model" mean you can predict behavior?
No but you can look back and understand
things like 1) how you have come to expec the kind of treatment you expect
2) Your relationship to self esteem
What are the outcomes of a "rejecting attachment figure"? What is an example of a rejecting attachment figure?
example: depressed mother

The outcome: child EXPECTS rejection. He may even perceive positive things as rejection.
Defensive Exclusion
= ? may develop in children with a rejecting attachment figure
intergenerational parents' internal working model:
effects how they raise children and what child's internal working model will be

* look into this more with a study from the book maybe
What did Darwin believe about emotions?
He believed there was a set of UNIVERSAL human emotions

He believed these emotions were linked to specific facial expressions
What contribution did Hizar make to Darwin's theory of emotion?
Hizar developed a CODING SYSTEM that researchers everywhere could use to clasify facial expressions

There were 3 regions of the face corresponding to neural networks and muscle groups that control expression
What did HIZAR believe about the development of emotions?
that there is an innate timetable for the emergence of emotional expression
what is the social function of emotions?
-establishes first bonds
-key to developing personality
Explain why a person might say "emotions are not skin deep"?
because emotions are linked to the nervous system
cautious child:
example in video- 2 year olds in a room with toys. Cautious child watches other children, does not play or engage.

this is an outward expression of inborn tendancy
What have studies of timid v. shy children shown about emotions?
That biology plays a key role

hormone levels and heart rate differences were shown between the two groups
Researchers think what percentage of children are born with an innate propensity for being outgoing or timid:
What would Kagan say about TEMPERMENT?
it is biologically DETERMINED!

-proof: over time children retain characteristics

there is a biologicla push in one direction
Study of ambiguous plexi-glass/short drop:

what does it teach us about social emotions?
-they communicate ideas

-children look to mother's facial expression to determine whether or not crossing the drop is safe

smile: cross

fear face: child doesn't cross
What does the plexiglass study show about fear in children at various stages of development?
child shows no fear as it crawls accross drop if it has only learned to crawl and not walk
18 months- emotional development. What changes at this stage?
social emotions develop
What are some of the social emotions?
-shame, guilt, embarrassment, empathy
Why do social emotions develop at around 18 months of age?
-because the child understands that it is an INDIVIDUAL
study example on empathy:
-some researchers believe children can show sympathy and empathy as early as newborns

-person pretends to cry in a environment where the child is near his or her mother

-child goes to comfort stranger or gets mother to help
Stage 1 of Emotional Development:
0-2 months: child is learning to calm down and relax- self regulation
Stage 2 of Emotional Development:
2-4 months: falling in love- build crucial relationships with caregivers
3rd Stage of Emotional Development
4-8 months

Purposeful Communication, emotional dialogue

become aware of your smile and that smiles make people happy and caring brings comfort. sense of TRUST and confidence develops
Stage 4 of Emotional Development
8-18 months

Children satisfy emotional needs with more complex interactions with people and objects. Capacity to take initiative, be independent, have purpose
Stage 5 of Emotional Development
18-24 months Child makes creative and intellectual leap. Organized sense of self, creation of emotional ideas and beginning of emotional thinking. Children can IMAGINE parents and toys. Make believe is possible
Stage 6 of Emotional Development
24 months to 36 months

emotional ideas coalesce into organized UNITS. High level sense of self and others. elaborate fantasy games
strange situation =
-a way of measuring attachment
- SEE BOOK - 8 EPISODES see infants responses to each

-Classifies infants into 4 categories
What do mother/child reunions show us about attachment? what should we look at?
-contact seeking
-contact maintaining
Securely attached =
65 % of US infants
Insecurely AVOIDANT =

what percentage and characteristics
-20% infants
-infants are non-responsive when caregiver is present
-not distressed when caregiver isn't there
-they react to caregivers in the same way they react to strangers
-when reunited they don't acknowledge mother

-linked to temperment, although temperment is not destiny
Insecure ATTACHED =
-will run up to the mother at reunion but
-will then hit her
-sometimes angry when mother returns, not easily comforted
-may cry when picked up
-failure to explore environment when prompted

% and decription

-Infants reflect profound INSECURITY,
-When parents return infants display confused contradictory behavir:
-dazed facial expression
what happen with severely insecure infants?
-they have frozen facial expressions when they are reunited with caregiver
-are impulsive

-Adopted Romanian infants- neglected
severe attachment disorder =
-never become atached to caregiver

-My be the cause of sociopathic behavior

* good essay/short answer question
Factors associated with Secure/Insecure Attachment:
1) caretaking deprivation
what is most important in predicting attachment?
sensitive caregiving
What are the characteristics of a negative/rejecting mother?
irritable, little bodily contact with children, leads to negative attachment
What happens when a child has a negative/rejecting mother?
leads to negative attachment
how do parents' internal working models affect the internal working models of their children?
parents own attachment and therefore their internal working models are brought into the relationship with the infant
senesitive caregiving is crucial to:
Parents who REPORTED secure attachment, have what type of children?
securely attached
what is another name for a securely attached adult:

What type of reports did parents with secure attachment make about their childhood
autonomous secure adult

working model: tend to neither idealize nor be angry at them , discuss their memories objectively
How are DISMISSIVE internal working parental models characterized?
-Devalue attachment relationship
-idealize parent but have few specific memories
Parents who have dismissive internal working models have what type of children?
AVOIDANT attached
Over involved Parental internal working model:
-discuss childhood in emotional ways
-overwhelmed or confused about own childhood attachment

*good question to test if you are B.S. ing
what type of children do over involved parents have?
Unresolved parental internal working model:
-show characteristics of over involved and dismissive
-there are significant UNRESOLVED EMOTIONS
what type of children do UNRESOLVED parents have?
What aspect of a mother's personality can affect her infant's security of attachment?
her EMOTIONAL state
genetic epistemology:
study of acquisition (genesis) of knowledge
What was Piaget's main contribution to the study of child development?
He pointed us in the right direction by asking the right questions

He esp. wanted to know how knowledge was acquired
What type of psychologist was Piaget?
a naturalist
naturalist psychologists:

observe individuals through naturalistic observation (i.e. in their natural environment)

he often observed his own children
what did piaget discover about children in different age groups?
-certain age groups got the same questions wrong!
Is Piaget's theory of learning continuous or discontinuous?

I think it's probably discontinuous since at certain ages children make leaps in understanding... I dunno though... these leaps may be based on an accumulation of schemas
Not only did the children in certain age groups in Piaget's studies get the same answers wrong, they also....
explained their answers in the same way
cognitive psychological structure

organized patterns of thoughts and behaviors
how do schemas change over time
from behaviorally focussed infant schemas to logical cognitive structures (at around age 10)
sensory motor development/schema
-sucking schema
-moves from mother's breast to other schemas for nourishment
sucking schema moves to this schema:
grasping and sucking a bottle
How do children acquire schemas?
1) Assimilation
2) Accomodation
Assimilaton and Accomodation are related how?
they are complementary processes
The Processes that Get us Schemas
1) Organization
2) Adaptation
3) Assimilation
4) Accomodation
5) Equilibrium
Organization: a procress that gets us schemas
-the process of putting together schemas to form more compelx schemas
example of how organization gets us a schema:
-put together grapsing, looking and lifting schemas to aqcuire a picking up schema
Organization as a process of aquiring schemas makes learning...
Adaptation as a process of getting schemas:
-tendency on part of organism to interact with environment in cognitively effective way

-GRADUAL CHANGE in psychological structures to interact effectively with and understand and control environment
-Effect on patr of child to fit new information into pre-exisiting psychological and cognitive structures
example of assimilation:
-sucking breast to sucking a botle
-modify cognitive structures or behavior to fit environment. Process if first to assimilate and if assimilation does not work you use accomadation
-very abstract idea

-Piaget's motivating force behind process of development

-we have desire to maintain psychological BALANCE in cognitive structures

-When new info doesn't fit in ....
Vygotsky's 4 major ideas:
1) children construct knowledge
2) learning can lead development
3) development cannot be seperated from its social context
4) language plays a central role
How did Vygotsky believe children acquired knowledge?
-they construct it according to him

-they DON'T just PASSIVELY reproduce what is presented to them
How is Vygotsky similar to Piaget in his view of knowledge acquisition?
-construction of knowledge isn't passive

for Piaget knowledge is acquired by interacting with environment and physical objects
for vygotsky, knowledge is:
co-constructed. Learning always involves more than one human
Vygotsky's block test:
study how children developo ability to make categories:

shape/color I assume--- look up online
What do behaviorists believe about learning and development?
they believe there's NO STRUCTURAL DISTINCTION between learning and development
What did Vygotsky and Piaget both believe?
-there are maturation PREREQUISITES for certain learning
example of how there are learning prerequisites for maturation:
can't master logical without language
how did piaget and vygotsky differ in their view of knowledge aqcuisition?
Vygotsky's view had more complex interactions
level of independent performance:
-how a specific child performs on a task
-the best he can do ALONE

ex: counting and numbers
level of assisted performance:
-better performance on the same task, obtainable only with help
zone of proximal development
area between "level of independent performance" and "level of assisted performance
What was Vygotsky's view of the role of social interaction in development?
-he thought it improved children's performance at tasks
What is the nature of the zone of proximal development?
-it progressively shifts as child obtains higher level
-with each shift child can learn more complex concepts and skills
3 important implications of the zone of proximal development in education:
1) rethink how we intervene to help
2) rethink how we assess people. Currently assesses based on level of independent performance, does not give full picture
3) rethink what is developmentally appropriate. Wait til child's skills develop to try to encourage. Should provide activities beyond what she can do alone but she can do with assistance
Development cannot be seperated from...
social context
Why can't development be seperated from social context?
social context influences more than just attitudes and beliefs

it influences HOW we think as well as what we do
is western logic universal?
how is knowlegde somewhat culturally determined:
its content and the processes we use to think are culturally determined

there are similar structures in the minds of all humans however

he believed there were 2 levels of mental functioning 1) higher 2) lower
Vygotsky's lower mental functioning:
-innate- shared with higher animals

-reactive attention- reacing to loud noises, shiny objects

-associative memory

-sensory motor though
Higher level mental functioning according to Vygotsky:
-unique to humans passed down via teaching and learning

form varies across cultures

-focussed attention
-deliberate memory
-symbolic thought
internal mental tools:
-are largely language based
-development of these tools requires help from adults
how does language play a central role in knowledge acquisition?
-means by which info is passed
-allows us to think abstractly
-always involves external experience being transformed into internal processes through mediation in language
sensory motor child:
-pre-operational development
-limited to ACTION SCHEMAS
-process Piaget describes as transition = symbolic thinking
pre-operational child:
-not always LOGICAL symbolic thinking
-they're intuitive
-PERCEPTION overwhelms logic
-child choses solutions to problems based on perception
4 dimensions of symbolic reasoning:
1) search for hidden objects
2) deferred imitation- lets us know child is in preoperational thinking
3) symbolic play- ability of children to use 1 object to count as something else- ex: doll being mother
4) ?
why is language important to thinking:
It allows child to have a representation of thoughts
why might an imaginary friend be a positive development/
-it shows child can project
-child has "child permanence"
ego centric language according to piaget-
nit usig lnaguage to communicate and exchange ideas
when did piaget believe language became social:
age 5

Prof. A thinks this can happen at age 5
what is the relationship between language and thought for piaget/
parallel acceleration

no causal relationship
STUDY to support piaget's view of teh role of language in thought:
-deaf mutes and blind children
-deaf/mutes showed the same stages of development but with a one or two year delay
-piaget argues children must use sign lnaguage
what does piaget's study of deaf mutes suggest about langauge and cog. ddevelopment?
language is not necessary but FASCILITATIVE for cog. development
why might blind children have a four year delay in cog development?
-sensory motor schemas take much longer to develop b/c they can't engage in modelling
moves you from one stage to the next
5 substages of sensory motor development:
is piaget's theory continous or discontinuous?
discontinuous between stages

continuous within stages
egocentrism of preoperational child
- no object concept
-out of sight = out of mind
-when info doesn't make sense to child, they think it's wrong
what helps children oversome egocentrism?
peer interaction
with egocentrism a child does this ______
but not this __________
they assimilate

they don't accomodate
a preoperational child focusses on
end points- beginning and end

example: conservation of liquids task
another ex. of child focussing on beginning and end:
ask child to draw sequence of pen dropping on ground- they draw beginnging and end
transductive thinking:
going from specific to specific

no integration of parts into a whole
inductive thinking-
specifics to general
-adding/integrating ideas
deductive thinking-
general to specific
formal op. thinking =
characterized by DEDUCTIVE THINKING

check if specifics fit into general ideas
ex transduction thinking:
Laurent sees a snail. Then sees another snail. He thinks it's the first one.
child is presented with visual stimuli and they focus on PARTICULAR THINGS
eye scan tests show
preoperation eyes can look at limited parts of stimuli
you can take in all visual stimuli
sensory motor childs cognition is dominated by
-faces made of fruit
-are they fruit or faces?
-pre-op children said one or othe r
-concrete op children said "fruit faces"
how concrete op. child understands conservation of liquids task: 3 ways
1) reversibility
2) compensation
3) invariance
nothing was added or taken away
another test that shows limits of pre-op understanding
-5 chips in two rows
-spaced evenly
-space unevenely
in concrete operational develop:
child's logic overcomes their perception
LOGICAL NECESSITY and concrete op. devel:
when there's a logical solution, it's logical by necessity of what you've set up
how do concrete op. children show egocentrism?
they don't get how someone could answer a question diff. than them

they think others are wrong
limitation of concrete op. child?
-can't think abstractly
-they're inductive thinkers
ex of limits of concrete op child:
-word problems

All dogs are pink
I have a dog
Is my dog pink?

if you gave them little plastic dogs they could find out
formal op. thinking:
-transition from childhood to adult
-begins at 11 or 12 according to piaget
13 or 14 according to scientists today
what types of egocentrism are shown at adolescence
1) imagined audience
2) personal fable
personal fable:
idea that you're the only person who goes through what you go through
why does the imaginary audience emerge at adolescence?
child has abstract thinking abilities to imagine everyone is watching
colorless liquids test:
-indicator liquiud in dropper turns some liquids yellow
-how do you know which combos turn yellow?

'you need to mix every combo
What type of reasoning goes along wih formal operations?

general--> specific ??? don't get
traits of formal op:
1) can make reality secondary to possibilities- can think hypothetically
2) combinatorial thinking
3) advanced stages of equilibrium: there's no place else to go in development
4) flexibility of thinking- not likely to be trhown off by unexpected result
critcisms of piaget's theory:

doesn't generalize to non-industrial nations

2) age norms = off
what did piaget think was the cornerstone of development?
why? because we try to rech cog. equilibrium always and this leads us to gain new knowlegde
diff in vygotsky and piaget- role of peers
Vygotsky- important
cultural variability
-processes of learning are the same
-the parental goals and outcomes are culturally variable
how does devel. niche work with piaget/vygotsky's theories
-the process of how and what we think is mediated by our social context
devel. niche
1) environment
2) caretake psychology
3) customs
culturally mediated tools

phsyical example
quill and scroll, typewriter, computer
4 mental culturally mediated tools
1) symbolic thought
2) deliberate memory
3) mathematics
4) technology
what would a school run by Vygotsky focus on?
-hands on - lots of help
-attention paid to the zone of promixal development
how is the direction of devel. diff. for piaget and vygotsky?
piaget--- egocentric --> social

vygotsky--> social as practice for inner thoughts
see child as important to his own devel.
according to siegler, individual variablity is...
good because it helps children learn better

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