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NS 210 Midterm


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Theory about how people got to North and South America. AKA - bering land bridge theory
aboriginal people in N + S america resemble people from siberia.
they crossed the frozen bering straight
Support: earliest site dated in N. America is in alaska
Earliest evidence in corridor dates back to 11,000 years B.P
Boat Crossing Theory
has more contact with new people with different languages
clovis, new mexico <- a number of spear points were found in wolly mammoth remains from 11,200 to 10,500 years b.p.
tools and weapons were found 12,500 years b.p in monteverde, chile, but contamination could effect the carbon dating
Kennewick Man
a man was discovered in a riverbank in 1996.
a coroner put the skeleton back together including a caste of the face.
found a spearpoint in his hip.
some remains were sent to testing and found to be about 9300 years old.
a lot of groups tried to claim him, but the court said that the anthropologists had the right to study him
3 periods in history
pre-contact: before contact of any kind. (early, 11,000 to 7500 yrs. b.p., middle 7500 - 1750 yrs. b.p. and late, 1750 to 300 yrs. b.p.)
Proto-contact: an indirect period where there's influence of contact but no permanent settlements (1690ad - 1795ad)
Contact: permanent settlement in the area (1795)
Head smashed in buffalo jump
a comunal kill site that functioned by driving buffalo to the cliff side and utilizing the herd mentality to have them jump off the clif. the bison would be processed at the base of the cliff.
it was in use from 5700 yrs. b.p.
buffalo pounds
were used in edmonton area. there would be a circle with lines of treas or shrubs leading towards it. the buffalo would run into it and there would be hunters all around the circle.
Majorville Cairn
nearly 300 artefacts were located at the site
4000-5000 years old
made totally of stones
Medicine Wheels
located on remote and high ground.
not positive on the purpose
thought to be burial grounds.
need 3 things:
1) central cairn
2) circle
3) radians
Writing on stone
provincial park.
located near the milk river near the montana boarder
in blackfood, writing on stone is known as aisinai'pi (it has been written) and their oral traditions state that the images have been "scribed on the rocks by spirits and that tribal elders went there to 'read' the omens" (Bryan 2005:129)
a name given to a group by an outsider
ex. Pegan, or stoney
a name given to a group by themselves
ex. picani, or assiniboine
ojibwa <- exonym
anushinabe <- ethnonym
were at warefare with dakota
reasons: to get over a mourning period
for hunting territory
located in minnisota
are matrimonial (get their status from their mother)
refer to the cree as their cousins
from northern ontario + quebec
moved west ahead of the fur trade
southward indians are cree too
cree is 1 of 2 indigenous languages that isn't endangered. (the other is inuktuk {inuit})
in southern alberta into montana
often referred to as the slave indians
blackfoot confederacy
blackfoot, blood, pegan (siksika, kainai, pi'kani) the original confederacy.
sarcee and gross venture joined them when they were needed, but sometimes faught against them too
located in northern alberta + NWT
very large group
aka. athabasca and chipewan
ft. chipewan is the oldest settlement in alberta. it is also one of the most violent places in canada
aka stoney <- exonym
were along the saskatchewan river valley in 1670
mostly mohawk
came with the northwest company
1801 - northwest company brought 300 mohawk to work
1804 - most mohawk were let go, but they stayed in the area
most didn't inter-marry with cree
they brought steel traps with them here
originally the family name or clan name of the people who lived in a given village and was the most important feature of identification of the group.
stone figures in the shape of humans
some used to show where food was hidden
some used for grave markers
fur was what?
one of the first in a long line of natural resources that attracted exploitation
what were the early europeans most interested in?
"made beaver" - a prime adult beaver pelt - used as currency
trapping still continues today, mostly in northern alberta
there were still registered trap lines in edmonton area until mid 1980's
the hudson's bay company brought people to work for them until what year?
mid 1960's
The fur trade
200-300 yrs, people were brought over to work.
1st thing to bring europeans over were fish.
main entry into canada was York Factory (in hudson's bay)
Ft. Chipewan
Most violent place in canada during the fur trade
The early fur trade
beginnings are in eastern canada and u.s.
began with john cabot's voyage in 1497
new ways of life evolved in both the indian and western eurpoean communities.
among the first aboriginal groups encountered were: the micmac and malecite of the maritimes and the beothuk
the cree got everything first.
who was the last of the beothuk and when did they die?
shaunadithit died in 1829 of tuberculosis
the fur trade companies
northwest company - 1783
new northwest company (XY company) - 1789
Hudson's bay company - 1670
American fur company - 1808
The Northwest Company
created in 1783
based out of montreal
leaders were simon mctavish, benjamin frobisher, and peter pond.
others involved were: simon fraser and david thompson - they joined after leaving HBC in 1797
as of Jan. 2004, NWC still has 4500 employees
The new northwest company
(XY company)
started in 1789 by shareholdrs who left nwc over various disagreements
known as xy because of the markings they used on their bales of fur
absorbed by nwc in 1804
American Fur Company
started by john jacob aster in 1808
1817 - u.s. congress forbids foreign traders from operating on u.s. territory
1842 - american fur company fails financially
the Hudson's Bay Company
established by royal charter in 1670
was given control of ruperts land
1821 - HBC and NWC merged under the name HBC
1869 - HBC gave ruperts land to the dominican of canada as the north west territories
The battle of seven oaks
1816 <- year of the battle
Miles macdonnell issues pemmican proclimation
Metis didn't agree with proclamation
1815 - macdonnell was replaced by governor semple
1816 - a band of metis led by cuthbert grant jr. seized a supply of hbc pemmican
22 of semples men, including semple died
2 metis died
Cuthbert Grant Jr.
1793 - 1854
sent to scotland to be educated
1812 - entered service of NWC
after merger of HBC + NWC, grant was asked by george simpson to settle with some Metis 16 Miles west of red river - became known as grantown - now known as st. francis xavier
1816 - battle of seven oaks
1835 - 1st metis to be appointed to provincial legislature
Women in shadows
by Norma Baily - about Christine Welsh trying to discover her past. her grandmother wasn't telling her about her native past, so she researched it herself, and found that her relatives played important parts in history.
Who were the boucher's?
Francoise + Paul
Paul worked for HBC,
aka. paul boucher dit lamallice
people put dit ___ after their name if they had a nickname and there was more than one of their regular name
What is Native Studies?
By Peter Kulchyski
N.S. is the setting right of names, the righting of names as much as the writing of names.
involves a twofold responsibility:
- meeting the demands of the academic community
- meeting the demands of the aboriginal community
traditional knowledge - the knowledge ppl are born with (ex. the way hunters can find seals near ice flows)
indigenous knowledge - knowledge ppl have to acquire (ex. how to shoot the seal so it remains floating)
The great debate on the first americans
By Tom D dillehay
a debate on when ppl first arrived to the americas
thought that the crossing from siberia to alaska was first, but the same material found in alaska was also found in far end of s. america at the same time.
A first american views his land
by N. Scott Momaday
about the lives of indians before the europeans arrived
talks about the killing of buffalo
talks about how a man isn't just one thing, he is everything (ex. a fisherman, hunter, husbandman, physician, farmer and more)
who owns prehistory? the bering land bridge dilemma
By Robert McGhee
archeologists believe that ppl came to canada across the baring land bridge.
native americans reject this theory because it makes them look like nothing more than immigrants, when they were here all along
Captain Cook and the spaces of contact at "Nootka Sound"
By Daniel Clayton
1778 - captain cook headed for the coast of the NW passage
men offered plates in exchange for women
women were forced onto the ship
1803 - ship called boston arrived
19 yr. old blacksmith named john jewet was on it
cheif and some men came aboard to do a dance and ceremopny and then attacked the europeans
john jewet was only survivor and was enslaved
jewet eventually became like a son to cheif wikwina and was married off
was sent to trade with an american ship, and instead of writing a trad note he wrote a rescue note and left forever.
"worth the noting": European ambivilance and aboriginal agency in meta incognita, 1570-1578
By Paul W. Depasquale
missionaries in hudson's bay and james bay area
red book + black book
taught to cree children
eurpoeans thought indians had a lot of psychological problems that they were able to "treat".
The journals and voices of a church of england native catechist: askenootow (Charles pratt) 1851 - 1884
By Winona Wheeler
about a woman trying to learn the trugh about her relative Charles Pratt
oral history said that he was proud of his native ancestry
written history belittles natives
he had to write poorly about the natives because his superiors read it
the truth was in the oral history
William W. Warren's History of the Ojibway People: Tradition, history, and context.
By Theresa Schenck
ojibway <- exonym
anushinaba <- ethnonym
warren sent to study
came back and wanted to write down all the oral history
got frustrated because of all the different variations of one story
realized that even though they were different they were all trying to say the same thing.
Mapping Inuktuk: inuit views of the real world
by Renee Fossett
different than europeans
measure on how many days it takes to get somewhere
women's role in mapping - main role
- shows that women are important
eurpoeans thought that because women had main role they were smarter then the men
inuit mapped resources (material, animals, places to sleep, ect.)
"Who is breaking the first commandment?" Oblate teachings and cree responses in the hudson's bay lowlands
By George Fulford and Louis Bird
analyzes key oblate teaching methods and their consequences documented in oral and written history.
at first teachers were nice, but got worse and worse with time.

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