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Miguel De Cervantes
(1547-1616) Spanish writer. Wrote Don Quixote.
War of the Three Henrys
French civil war because the Holy League vowed to bar Henri of Navarre from inheriting the French throne. Supported by the Holy League and Spain's Philip II, Henri of Guise battles Henri III of Valois and Henri of Navarre.
Individualism
Individualism stressed personality, uniqueness, genius, and the fullest development of capabilities and talents.
Thomas Wolsey
Cardinal, highest ranking church official and lord chancellor. Dismissed by Henry VIII for not getting the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon.
John Huss
Bohemian religious reformer whose efforts to reform the church eventually fueled the Protestant Reformation.
Virtu
The striving for excellence and being a virtuous person. Humanistic aspect of Renaissance.
Julius II
r(1503-1513) Pope - very militaristic. Tore down the old Saint Peter's Basilica and began work on the present structure in 1506. Sponsored Michaelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel.
Lorenzo Valla
(1406-1457) On Pleasure, and On the False Donation of Constantine, which challenged the authority of the papacy. Father of modern historical criticism.
Botticelli
One of the leading painters of the Florentine renaissance, developed a highly personal style. The Birth of Venus
John Calvin
French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion
Donatello
(1386-1466) Sculptor. Probably exerted greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. His statues expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature.
Pico Della Mirandola
Wrote On the Dignity of Man which stated that man was made in the image of God before the fall and as Christ after the Resurrection. Man is placed in-between beasts and the angels. He also believed that there is no limits to what man can accomplish.
Indulgences
Selling of forgiveness by the Catholic Church. It was common practice when the church needed to raise money. The practice led to the Reformation.
The Institutes of Christian Religion
Written by John Calvin
Niccolo Machiavelli
(1469-1527) Wrote The Prince which contained a secular method of ruling a country. "End justifies the means."
Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
Boccaccio
(1313-1375) Wrote the Decameron which tells about ambitious merchants, portrays a sensual, and worldly society.
Giotto
(1276-1337) Florentine Painter who led the way in the use of realism.
Jesuits
Members of the Society of Jesus, staunch Catholics. Led by Loyola.
Brunelleschi
Italian architect, celebrated for work during Florentine Renaissance. He was anti-Gothic. Foundling Hospital in Florence.
Revival of antiquity
The awakening from the dark ages and the focusing on the Roman's.
Predestination
Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life.
Dante Alighieri
Medieval Italian poet wrote Inferno and Divine Comedy. Dealt the influence of the afterlife.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Mass slaying of Huguenots (Calvinists) in Paris, on Saint Bartholomew's Day, 1572.
Excommunication
When a person is kicked out of the Catholic church.
Friar Girolamo Savonarola
(1452-1498) Dominican friar who attacked paganism and moral vice of Medici and Alexander VI. Burned at the stake in Florence.
Leonardo Da Vinci
(1452-1519) Artist who made sculptures and religious paintings like the Last Supper.
Consubstantiation
The bread and wine undergo a spiritual change.
John Wycliffe
(c.1328-1384) Forerunner to the Reformation. Created English Lollardy. Attacked the corruption of the clergy, and questioned the power of the pope.
Jacob Fugger
Headed leading banking, and trading house in l6th century Europe.
Baroque
Style in art and architecture developed in Europe from about 1550 to 1700, emphasizing dramatic, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts. Associated with Catholicism.
Ignatius Loyola
Founded the Society of Jesus, resisted the spread of Protestantism, wrote Spiritual Exercises.
Simony
The selling of church offices.
Ulrich Zwingli
(1484-1531) Swiss reformer, influenced by Christian humanism. He looked to the state to supervise the church. Banned music and relics from services. Killed in a civil war.
Petrarch
(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
Humanism
Studied the Latin classics to learn what they reveal about human nature. Emphasized human beings, their achievements, interests, and capabilities.
Montaigne
(1533-1592) The finest representative of early modern skepticism. Created a new genre, the essay.
Peace of Westphalia
Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War (1648) and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe.
Cinquecento
The 1500's.
Lorenzo de Medici
r(1469-1492) The Medici's were a great banking family in Florence in the 15th century. Ruled government of Florence from behind the scene.
Johann Tetzel
The leading seller of Indulgences. Infuriated Luther.
Castiglione
Wrote The Courtier which was about education and manners and had a great influence. It said that an upper class, educated man should know many academic subjects and should be trained in music, dance, and art.
Thomas Cranmer
Prepared the First Book of Common Prayer.
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
Pazzi Conspiracy
Conspiracy to overthrow the Medici's. Failed, and Medici retribution was swift and very violent.
Huguenots
French Calvinists.
Nepotism
The practice of appointing family members to positions of favor. The practice was very common in the Catholic Church. Theocracy - A community in which the state is subordinate to the church
"Renaissance Man"
A man that is multitalented and is well educated. The example being Michaelangelo.
Anglicanism
Upholding to the teachings of the Church of England as defined by Elizabeth I.
Act of Supremacy
Declared the king (Henry VIII) the supreme head of the Church of England in 1534.
Rabelais
French satirical author.Gargantua and Pantagruel.
Vernacular
Everyday language of a specific nation.
Usury
The practice of lending money for interest.
Sir Thomas More
(1478-1535) Englishman, lawyer, politician, Chancellor for Henry VIII. Wrote Utopia which presented a revolutionary view of society, in which the problems of society were caused by greed. Executed by Henry VIII for not compromising his religious beliefs.
Erasmus
(1466?-1536) Dutch Humanist and friend of Sir Thomas More. Perhaps the most intellectual man in Europe and widely respected. Believed the problems in the Catholic Church could be fixed; did not suport the idea of a Reformation. Wrote Praise of Folly.
Martin Luther
95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.
Hans Holbein the Younger
German Painter noted for his portraits and religious paintings.
Michelangelo Buonarroti
(1475-1564) Worked in Rome. Painted the Sistine Chapel for Pope Julius II. Sculpted the statue of David.
Alexander VI
(1492-1503) Corrupt Spanish pope. He was aided militarily and politically by his son Cesare Borgia, who was the hero of The Prince.
John Knox
Dominated the movement for reform in Scotland. Had been taught in Geneva by Calvin.
Edict of Nantes
1598 - Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.
Defenestration of Prague
The throwing of Catholic officials from a castle window in Bohemia. Started the Thirty Years' War.
"New Monarchs"
Monarchies that took measures to limit the power of the Roman Catholic Church within their countries. The people loved the idea of being the monarch and removed all competition. They were very Machiavellian. Included Henry VII and Henry VIII of England.
Secularism
The belief in material things instead of religious things. This was a shift away from Medieval thinking.
Quattrocento
The 1400's.

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