This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

ap euro ch13-20

i am in ms. bradys ap euro class at nhs and i know this helps me a lot


undefined, object
copy deck
Pedro Cabral
Claimed Brazil for Portugal
Dante Alighieri
Italian poet wrote Inferno and Divine Comedy.
Calvin's religious theory that God has already planned out a person's life.
Thomas Cranmer
Prepared the First Book of Common Prayer.
"Renaissance Man"
A man that is multitalented and is well educated.
Selling of these was common practice by the Catholic church, corruption that led to reformation.
The 1500's.
The 1400's.
Discourse on Methods
Descartes (1677) espoused deductive reasoning.
Sir Thomas More
(1478-1535) Englishman, lawyer, politician, Chancellor for Henry VIII. Wrote Utopia which presented a revolutionary view of society. Executed for not compromising his religious beliefs.
Galileo Galilei
Created modern experimental method. Formulated the law of inertia. Tried for heresy and forced to recant. Saw Jupiter's moons. Wrote Dialogue on the Two Chief Systems of the World
French philosophe. Wrote The Spirit of Laws. Said "Power checks power". Separation of powers. Form of government varies according to climate.
Sir Walter Raleigh
(1552?-1618) English courtier, navigator, colonizer, and writer. A favorite of Elizabeth I, he introduced tobacco and the potato to Europe. Convicted of treason by James I, he was released for another expedition to Guiana and executed after its failure.
Giovanni de Verrazano
(1485?-1528?) Italian explorer of the Atlantic coast of North America.
Isaac Newton
English scientist. 3 Laws of motion. Mathematics Principal of Natural Philosophy (1687).
Possessing a monopoly over the instruments of justice.
"Natural History"
Written by Buffon, discussed scientific matters.
Opponents of mercantilism and Colbertism in particular. Led by Francois Quesnay. Felt the need for a strong independent republic.
Individualism stressed personality, uniqueness, genius, and the fullest development of capabilities and talents.
Members of the Prussian landed aristocracy, a class formerly associated with political reaction and militarism.
Russian dynasty, started with Michael Romanov after the Time of Troubles and lasted until 1917.
French satirical author.Gargantua and Pantagruel.
William of Orange
Dutch prince invited to be king of England after The Glorious Revolution. Joined League of Augsburg as a foe of Louis XIV.
A community in which the state is subordinate to the church
Treaty of Tordesillas
Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
(1596-1650) French philosopher, discovered analytical geometry. Saw Algebra and Geometry have a direct relationship. Reduced everything to spiritual or physical.
Pico Della Mirandola
Wrote On the Dignity of Man which stated that man was made in the image of God before the fall and as Christ after the Resurrection. Man is placed in-between beasts and the angels. He also believed that there is no limits to what man can accomplish.
Adam Smith
Scottish professor of philosophy. Developed the idea of free enterprise, critical of mercantilism. Wrote Wealth of Nations Jethro Tull - English inventor advocated the use of horses instead of oxen. Developed the seed drill and selective breeding.
Miguel De Cervantes
(1547-1616) Spanish writer. Wrote Don Quixote.
Bartholomew Diaz
(1487-1488) Portuguese, first European to reach the southern tip of Africa.
Martin Luther
95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion.
"Sun King"
Louis XIV had the longest reign in European history. Helped France to reach its peak of absolutist development.
John Calvin
Theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion
War of the Three Henrys
French civil war because the Holy League vowed to bar Henri of Navarre from inheriting the French throne. Supported by the Holy League and Spain's Philip II, Henri of Guise battles Henri III of Valois and Henri of Navarre.
Natural Law
Universal law that could be understood by applying reason; letting people govern themselves.
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Written by Locke, tabula rasa theory.
Economic theory of maintaining balance of exports and imports. The opposite of socialism and communism.
Thomas Hobbes
Leading secular exponent of absolutism and unlimited sovereignty of the state. Absolutism produced civil peace and rule of law. Tyranny is better than chaos. Claimed life was, "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short."
Revival of antiquity
The awakening from the dark ages and the focusing on the Roman's.
(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
The Spirit of Laws
Montesquieu, about separation of powers.
(1313-1375) Wrote the Decameron which tells about ambitious merchants, portrays a sensual, and worldly society.
Written by English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, maintained that sovereignty is ultimately derived from the people, who transfer it to the monarchy by implicit contract.
Gabriel Fahrenheit
Developed measurement of temperature with freezing at 32 degrees.
Spanish 'conqueror' or soldier in the new World.
Land owning aristocracy in early Russia.
Peace of Westphalia
Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War (1648) and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe.
Julius II
(1503-1513) Pope - very militaristic. Tore down the old Saint Peter's Basilica and began work on the present structure in 1506.
(1386-1466) Sculptor. Probably exerted greatest influence of any Florentine artist before Michelangelo. His statues expressed an appreciation of the incredible variety of human nature.
Enclosure movement
18th century English movement, marked the rise of market oriented estate.
Alexander VI
(1492-1503) Corrupt Spanish pope. He was aided militarily and politically by his son Cesare Borgia, who was the hero of The Prince.
Ferdinand Magellan
(1480?-1521) Portuguese navigator. While trying to find a western route to Asia, he was killed in the Philippines (1521). One of his ships returned to Spain (1522), thereby completing the first circumnavigation of the globe.
When a person is kicked out of the Catholic church.
(1276-1337) Florentine Painter who led the way in the use of realism.
Leonardo Da Vinci
(1452-1519) Artist who made religious paintings and sculptures like the Last Supper.
"General Will"
Betterment of the community. Founded by Rousseau, he felt that this determines a country's course in economics and politics.
Hans Holbein the Younger
Painter noted for his portraits and religious paintings.
New Model Army
Created by Cromwell.
The selling of church offices
John Locke
Believed people were born like blank slates and the environment shapes development, (tabula rasa). Wrote Essay Concerning Human Understanding, and Second Treatise of Government.
Geocentric Theory
Earth is the center of the universe. Aristotelian.
Michalangelo Buonarroti
(1475-1564) Worked in Rome. Painted the Sistine Chapel. Sculpted the statue of David.
The striving for excellence. Humanistic aspect of Renaissance.
v (1533-1592) The finest representative of early modern skepticism. Created a new genre, the essay.
Niccolo Machiavelli
(1469-1527) Wrote The Prince which contained a secular method of ruling a country. "End justifies the means."
The Social Contract
Rousseau, suggestions in reforming the political system and modeled after the Greek polis.
Inductive Reasoning
Baconian empiricism. Based speculations on other situations.
Northwest Passage
A water route from the Atlantic to the Pacific through northern Canada and along the northern coast of Alaska. Sought by navigators since the 16th century
1648-53. Brutal civil wars that struck France during the reign of Louis XIII.
William Hogarth
English painter. Marriage a la Mode.
The Restoration
Restored the English monarchy to Charles II, both Houses of Parliament were restored, established Anglican church, courts of law and local government.
John Wycliffe
(c.1328-1384) Forerunner to the Reformation. Created English Lollardy. Attacked the corruption of the clergy, and questioned the power of the pope.
William Harvey
Englishman who announced blood circulates throughout the body.
French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide. Believed enlightened despot best form of government.
Louis Pontchartrain
French controller of finance who imposed the capitation of an annual poll tax.Ended Louis XIV's attempts to gain military power and land. Marked the end of French expansionist policy. Ended the War of Spanish Succession.
Prince Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460) Prince of Portugal who established an observatory and school of navigation at Sagres and directed voyages that spurred the growth of Portugal's colonial empire.
Petition of Rights
Limited the power of Charles I of England. a) could not declare martial law; b) could not collect taxes; c) could not imprison people without cause; d) soldiers could not be housed without consent.Louis Pontchartrain
Nicolaus Copernicus
(1473-1543) Polish clergyman. Sun was the center of the universe; the planets went around it. On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres. Destroyed Aristotle's view of the universe - heliocentric theory.
(1377-1446) Italian architect, celebrated for work during Florentine Renaissance. He was anti-Gothic. Foundling Hospital in Florence.
"New Monarchs"
Monarchies that took measures to limit the power of the Roman Catholic Church within their countries.
A former principality in west-central Russia. Centered on Moscow, it was founded c. 1280 and existed as a separate entity until the 16th century, when it was united with another principality to form the nucleus of the early Russian empire. The name was then used for the expanded territory.
Carl Linnaeus
System Nature- developed methods to classify and name plants and animals
Peace of Utrecht
Ended Louis XIV's attempts to gain military power and land. Marked the end of French expansionist policy. Ended the War of Spanish Succession.
Sir Francis Drake
English sea captain, robbed Spanish treasure ships; 'singed the king beard'; involved in the armada.
Jules Mazarin
Became a cardinal in 1641, succeeded Richelieu and dominated the power in French government.
"French Classicism"
Art, literature, and advancements of the age of Louis XIV.
Ptolemy's System
Last great ancient astronomer; there was a place for God. Complicated rules used to explain minor irregularities in the movement of the planets.
John Knox
Dominated the movement for reform in Scotland. Had been taught in Geneva by Calvin.
(1466?-1536) Dutch Humanist, religious education. Wrote Praise of Folly.
Enlightened despot
Enlightened ruler. Catherine the Great, Frederick the Great.
Lorenzo Valla
(1406-1457) On Pleasure, and On false Donation of Constantine. Father of modern historical criticism.
Twentieth century phenomenon that seeks to direct all facets of a state's culture in the interest of the state.
Jacob Fugger
Headed leading banking, and trading house in l6th century Europe.
Discourses on the Origins of Inequalities
Rousseau, discuss the innocence of man and his corruption by society.
Jean-Babtiste Colbert
An advisor to Louis XIV who proved himself a financial genius who managed the entire royal administration.
Voltaire, satirizing society and organized religion in Europe.
Everyday language of a specific nation.
Members of the Society of Jesus, staunch Catholics. Led by Loyola.
The philosophy that a state's strength depends upon it wealth.
Edict of Nantes
1598 - Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.
Louis XIII
Influenced by Richelieu to exult the French monarchy as the embodiment of the French state.
Lorenzo de Medici
(1469-1492) The Medici's were a great banking family in Florence in the 15th century. Ruled government of Florence from behind the scene.
Pazzi Conspiracy
Conspiracy to overthrow the Medici's.
Bacon's theory of inductive reasoning.
Aristotelian World View
Motionless earth was fixed at center of universe, God was beyond.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Mass slaying of Huguenots (Calvinists) in Paris, on Saint Bartholomew's Day, 1572.
German royal family who ruled Brandenburg from 1415 and later extended their control to Prussia (1525). Under Frederick I (ruled 1701-1713) the family's possessions were unified as the kingdom of Prussia.
William Laude
Archbishop of Canterbury, tried to impose elaborate ritual and rich ceremonies on all churches. Insisted on complete uniformity of the church and enforced it through the Court of High Commission.
Pragmatic Sanction
Issued by Charles VI of Austria in 1713 to assure his daughter Maria Theresa gained the throne.
One of the leading painters of the Florentine renaissance, developed a highly personal style. The Birth of Venus
Limitation of government by law, developed in times of absolutism.
Francis Bacon
(1561-1626)English politician, writer. Formalized the empirical method. Novum Organum. Inductive reasoning.
Studied the Latin classics to learn what they reveal about human nature. Emphasized human beings, their achievements, interests, and capabilities.
God built the Universe and let it run. Clockmaker theory.
Art style that focuses on pastels, ornate interiors, and sentmental portraits.
Robert Boyle
Physicist, nothing can be known beyond all doubt.
The bread and wine undergo a spiritual change.
Nicholas Poussin
French classical painter who painted the Rape of the Sabine Women, known as the greatest French painter of the 17th century.
Andrew Celsius
Invented measurement of temperature - Celsius.
War of Austrian Succession
Conflict caused by the rival claims for the dominions of the Habsburg family. Before the death of Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor and archduke of Austria, many of the European powers had guaranteed that Charles's daughter Maria Theresa would succeed him.
Big commercial center for importing and exporting commodities.
John Cabot
Italian-born navigator explored the coast of New England, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland. Gave England a claim in North America.
The Royal Society of London
Established by Charles II in 1662; purpose to help the sciences.
Indians were required to work a certain number of days for a land owner, but had their own land to work as well.
Deductive Reasoning
Descartes, doubt everything and use deductive reasoning. Reasoning based on facts. Combined with empiricism to create scientific method.
Johann Tetzel
The leading seller of Indulgences. Infuriated Luther.
Gresham College
Located in England. Leading place for the advancement of science. First time scientists had a honored roll in society; center of scientific activity.
The practice of lending money for interest
Wrote The Courtier which was about education and manners and had a great influence. It said that an upper class, educated man should know many academic subjects and should be trained in music, dance, and art.
Vasco da Gama
Sailed from Portugal for India.
Bill of Rights
1689, no law can be suspended by the king; no taxes raised; no army maintained except by parliamentary consent. Established after The Glorious Revolution.
Heliocentric Theory
Sun is the center of the universe. Coperican
Style in art and architecture developed in Europe from about 1550 to 1700, emphasizing dramatic, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts. Associated with Catholicism.
Upholding to the teachings of the Church of England as defined by Elizabeth I.
Tycho Brahe
(1546-1601) Established himself as Europe's foremost astronomer of his day; detailed observations of new star of 1572.
Defenestration of Prague
The throwing of Catholic officials from a castle window in Bohemia. Started the Thirty Years' War.
Louis XIV
King of France who ruled as an absolute monarch, even as a child.
Friar Girolamo Savonarola
(1452-1498) Dominican friar who attacked paganism and moral vice of Medici and Alexander VI. Burned at the stake in Florence.
When sovereignty is embodied in the person of the ruler.
Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
The Institutes of Christian Religion
Written by John Calvin
Cardinal Richelieu
Became President of the Council of ministers and the first minister of the French crown.
Established by Peter the Great, they received land and control of the peasants.
The belief in material things instead of religious things.
Frederick William the Great Elector
First man who made modern Prussia.
French Calvinists.
John Huss
Bohemian religious reformer whose efforts to reform the church eventually fueled the Protestant Reformation.
Promoting human welfare and social reform.
Act of Supremacy
Declared the king the supreme head of the Church of England.
Urban growth during the agricultural revolution. It dealt with the migration from rural to urban areas.
Thomas Wolsey
Cardinal, highest ranking church official and lord chancellor. Dismissed by Henry VIII for not getting the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine
Ignatius Loyola
Founded the Society of Jesus, resisted the spread of Protestantism, Spiritual Exercises.
Oliver Cromwell
As Lord Protector of England he used his army to control the government and constituted military dictatorship.
Second Treatise of Government
Written by Locke, Government created to protect life, liberty, and property.
Ulrich Zwingli
(1484-1531) Swiss reformer, influenced by Christian humanism. He looked to the state to supervise the church. Banned music and relics from services. Killed in a civil war.
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
Monarchs who united Spain; responsible for the reconquista.

Deck Info