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Book Seven Vocabulary

A History of US


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P.T. Barnum
the most famous showman of his time, helped found the most famous circus in history
land redistribution
the breakup of large landholdings and the redistribution of the land to farmers who have little land or none
Blanche K. Bruce/Hiram R. Revels
examples of well-educated black men who became U.S. Senators during the congressional Reconstruction period
a term of scorn and hostility used by white Southerners to describe Northerners active in the Republican Party in the South after the American Civil War
Amendment 14
gave citizenship to blacks
something designed to deceive and mislead
Civil Rights Act of 1866
guaranteed various legal rights of the former slaves
doubleness of heart, thought, speech, or action, deception by pretending to entertain one set of feelings and acting under the influence of another
Louisa Ann Swain
first woman in the US to legally caste a vote (September 6, 1870)
the reorganization and reestablishment in the Union during a period (1867-1877) following the American Civil War of those states that had seceded
an arrangement whereby a farmer gets to use land owned by another in trade for a portion (share) of whatever crop is produced
white Southerners active in the Republican Party during Reconstruction
Amendment 13
abolition of slavery
Alfred Ely Beach
American editor and inventor who built a demonstration pneumatic subway under Broadway in New York City in 1870
the separation or isolation of individuals or groups from a larger group or from society
Wild Bill Hickok
American frontier army scout, peace officer, stagecoach driver, gambler
the care or control of subordinates in a fatherly manner, especially the principles or practices of a government that undertakes to supply needs or regulate conduct of the governed in matters affecting them as individuals as well as in their relations to the state and to each other
vigilante justice
taking law enforcement into one's own hands apart from duly established legal authority; justice meted out by member of a vigilante committee
ladies' hatmaker
the voluntary violation of an oath or vow either by swearing to what is untrue or by omission to do what has been promised under oath
W.E.B. DuBois
one of the most important leaders of African American protest in the United States
William Marcy Tweed
an American politician who swindled New York City out of millions of dollars
King Wheat
refers to the idea that wheat production exploded in America between 1860 and 1890; sales and exports of wheat became huge and hugely important to the American economy
Ku Klux Klan
a group of white secret societies who oppose the advancement of blacks, Jews, and other minority groups
Congressional Reconstruction
Reconstruction Acts passed by Congress in 1867
Jesse Chisholm
a mixed-blood Cherokee Indian trader
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Jim Crow
a fictional black man who would sing and dance and cause no problems; his name came to stand for the practice of segration
Presidential Reconstruction
Reconstruction under the direction of the president
Tuskegee Institute
a vocational school for blacks in Tuskegee, Alabama
John Wesley Powell
American geologist, an authority on irrigation, and a student of American Indians
Thaddeus Stevens
leader of the Radical Republicans
Thomas Nast
American political cartoonist
Nez Perce
a tribe of Indians that lives in north-central Idaho
Plessy v. Ferguson
a landmark decision of the Supreme Court of the United States concerning racial segregation
Booker T. Washington
African-American educator
religiouse sense
franchise (with respect to politics)
the right to vote
Chisholm Trail
a famous route that Texas cowboys used in driving cattle herds north to the railroads in Kansas
Samuel Clemens
legal name of "Mark Twain"
welfare capitalism
capitalism characterized by a concern for the welfare of various social groupings expressed usually through social-security programs, collective-bargaining agreements, state, industrial codes, and other guarantees against insecurity
experiencing something through another person (by means of their description, for example, or by means of their telling you the story), rather than experiencing it directly
Jacob Riis
Danish-American photographer who focused on the lives of the poor immigrants in America
Calamity Jane
a very independent-minded woman who did a lot of things in the West that normally only tough men got involved in
a government grant of a monopoly right that gives to one who invents or discovers a new and useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter or a new and useful improvement thereof the exclusive right for a specific term of 17 years with certain rights of extension to make, use, or sell his invention or discovery or to assign or license less than the full patent right and that when issued is prima facie evidence of its own validity but may be attacked in a federal court
William Seward
served as United States secretary of state during the Civil War
emitting visible light as a result of being heated
in the Constitution: to be charged, formally, with "treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors"; the House of Representatives impeaches; the Senate then tries the impeached person to determine if he is "guilty as charged"
John Wesley Powell
a Civil War veteran, led an expedition down the Colorado River in 1869. He mapped the Grand Canyon and wrote a book about his adventures. He sought to preserve our natural wonders as national parks.
to hang or otherwise kill by mob action in punishment of a presumed crime of offense
poll tax
a tax of a fixed rather than a graduated amount per head or person which is levied on adults and payment of which is often made a requirement for voting
vocational training
training in a specific skill or trade usually with a view to gainful employment soon after completion of the course
the idea that only "natives" should have citizenship rights (though the "natives" were only whites, and not blacks or Indians)
Radical Republicans
dominated Congress after the congressional elections of 1866
Joe McCoy
American cattle-trader pioneer
the "Big Muddy"
the Missouri River
Joseph Glidden
designed the first commercially successful barbed wire
Cyrus McCormick
invented a reaping machine that revolutionized grain harvesting
existing before the war
a high-ranking or otherwise superior individual
Gilded Age
a term developed by Twain and a friend from Shakespeare's verse about gilding refined gold and painting lilies: such behavior is "wasteful and ridiculous excess"; Twain and his friend (and a lot of other people, thought that the 1890s were full of such wasteful and ridiculous excess)
Freedmen's Bureau
primarily designed to help newly freed slaves, providing food, clothing, shelter, even education; "Its greatest accomplishments were in education: more than 1,000 black schools were built and over $400,000 spent to establish teacher-training institutions. All major black colleges were either founded by, or received aid from, the bureau"
Ellis Island
United States reception center for immigrants for more than 60 years
Esther Morris
woman from Wyoming who requested the commitment of both (opposing) candidates for the Wyoming legislature to commit themselves, if they got elected, to introduce a women's suffrage bill in the Wyoming legislature; the date was 1869, both candidates made the commitment, and the winner followed through, making Wyoming the first state to permit women to vote: November 9, 1869
mark, twain
the words called out by the man who measured the depth of water below a riverboat; "mark, twain!" meant the water was (at least) two fathoms (12 feet) deep, and, therefore, safe for a steam boat to travel through
Black codes
state laws regulating the activities of blacks in the Southern United States after the American Civil War
George Washington Carver
black American scientist who won international fame for his agricultural research
Chief Joseph
Nez Perce chief famous for a retreat he led through Idaho and Montana in 1877
Roughing It
story by Twain about living in the Western mining camps of the late 1800s
Tammany Hall
a group of powerful Democratic politicians
due process of law
following prescribed standards through the court system
Ida Wells
a black journalist who wrote about segregation and lynchings in the South; her newspaper columns were printed in several papers and she became well known both in the US and in Europe
Alexander Stephens
vice president of the Confederate States of America during the Civil War
A Connecticut Yankee at King Arthur's Court
an imaginary story about...a Connecticut Yankee at King Arthur's Court!
to kill someone for a crime without first holding a trial to determine innocence or guilt
legal brief
a written legal argument
Amendment 15
black suffrage
a member of a legislative body of a city

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