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Hnrs 240 Unit Three


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The Whig Party was made up of former Federalists and former Republicans who...
advocated economic development
What were the forces of division in the Republican party in the 1820s?
tensions from industrialization, rise of cotton south, westward expansion
What happened to the American political system during the antebellum period?
written ballots, don't need property to vote, appointed officers become elected
Reformers of the antebellum period were...
sectionalized; influneced by religion and area
Martin Van Buren's political machine in New York was known as
Albany Regency
What did the presidential election of 1828 demonstrate?
people wanted a common man over a scholar
removing officeholders of the rival political party and replacing them with memebers of your own party is called the...
spoils system
Why did President Jackson veto the Maysville Road Bill?
he believed that federal support for internal improvements was unconstitutional
what section of the country tended to oppose tariffs
South--they feared counter-tariffs against their exported goods
The theory that the Union is a compact among the states and that a state has the right to override a federal law is known as...
Virginia & Kentucky Resolution of 1798 and 1799
The South Carolina Exposition and Protest was drawn up in opposition to...
1828 tariff/ Tariff of Abominations
The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to
use arms to collect customs duties in South Carolina
the tariff controversy of the early 1830s showed that
there were sectional conflicts; the north and South difference between imports and exports
What were the reasons why Andrew Jackson vetoed the rechartering of the Bank of the United States?
he distrusted banks in general, this bank was above politics, it was in the hands of moneyed capitalists
The term "pet banks" was applied to
banks entrusted with the deposit of federal funds (state banks used for federal revenue)
What did President Jackson do in his "war" on the Bank of the United States?
he signed the deposit act, put federal deposits in state banks
The difference between "hard money" and "soft money" is:
hard money=specie, soft money=paper
Who was the main opposition to Andrew Jackson during his second term in office?
Whig party
Which of the following groups would not have supported the Whig party during the Jacksonian era?
The Specie Circular
only specie was accepted as payment
What contributed to the depression of 1837?
growing # of banks, Banks suspend specie payments, hyper-inflation, Jackson's Specie Circular, Britain halts the flow of specie to US
In the late 1830's and early 1840's, what group believed that the end of the world was imminent?
Miller and his followers
Which political party had become the anti-bank, hard-money party by 1840?
What was the purpose of the Independent Treasury advocated by President Van Buren?
put all federal funds in a seperate, independent bank
Why did President Martin Van Buren lose the presidential election of 1840?
while Whigs rallied for support, he just quietly wrote letters
What was the main cause of the great increase in the popular vote etween the 1836 and 1840 presidential elections?
more people chose to vote
The period of revivalism that swept the nation in the early years of the nineteenth century is known as:
The Second Great Awakening
the belief that people can live without sin was called
Which sect believed that Jesus was not divine but merely an exemplary human being?
Why can Mormonism be described as "pushing against the currents of American reliegion and society"?
it contested the sole authority of the Bible
What was a noteworthy tenet of the Shakers?
thought that Jesus would reappear as a woman; got their name from some weird dance they did
What was a reform movement of the Age of Jackson?
temperance, abolitionism
Why did temperance reformers make one of their main targets the moderate drinkers among the laboring classes?
factories demanded increasing levels of discipline, so they were drinking less anyway
The goals of the school reform movement in the Age of Jackson were:
to spread universal cultural values and combat ignorance
Who was the most famous and controversial white abolitionist?
William Lloyd Garrison
What did most white abolitionists want?
legal (NOT civil and social) racial equality
The Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments called for:
equality between men and women
What was one of the major reasons for the changing attitude toward poverty, crime, and insanity in the early nineteenth century?
belief that the right combination of morals will cure bad habits
What were the major utopian communities?
Brookfarm, Fruitlands, Hopedale, New Harmony, Oneida
Most founders of Utopian communities believed that
humans were perfectable
How did Oneida compared with the other utopian communities of the antebellum era?
Oneida is more moderate
What was a feature of the Oneida?
permits sin, economic reforms, utopian community
The 1840s and 1850s were characterized by
heightened literary and artistic (NOT advanced medical knowledge!!!)
What antebellum innovations helped transform American life?
mechanical reaper, sewing machine, interchangeable parts
Before the Civil War, European and American railroads differed in that:
American railroads were faster and did not have class compartments
What is usually considered the first "big business" in the United States?
how was the building of railroads in the US financed?
At first, state money paid for it, but later on, they sold securities on the New York Stock Exchange
What impact did technological changes have on the American worker before the Civil War?
more goods are affordable; increase in wages
How did the standard of living in an antebellum urban family differ from that of a rural family?
marginally better; middle class gets wealthier, poorer class gets poorer
An urban middle-class home in the 1850s would have had:
several stories, coal-burning stove, communal water supply
What kind of urban housing developed during the early nineteenth century?
row houses
What were the results of rising land values in the early nineteenth-century American city?
more people rented instead of buying
how did home furniture change during the antebellum period?
technology made it possible for middle-class to have ornate furniture
What advance in heating and cooking occurred in antebellum America?
In the decades before the Civil War, what changes took place to influence the diet of the average urban dweller?
railroads brought veggies--a few even had *iceboxes*! (gasp!)
What medical development greatly advanced the image of surgeons and the success of health care in the decades before the Civil War?
What were popular health movements in antebellum America?
hydropathy, dietary changes, phrenology
Who was Sylvester Graham
dude who was all like "Be healthy, dudes"!
The belief that bumps on the skull reveal an individuals personality is called:
Phrenology was popular in antebellum America for all of the following reasons:
it was a "practical" science, promised a quick assessment of others, easily understood and practiced
What was one of the changes that transformed American newspapers?
lowered costs of production and sale; cheaper paper
An American publisher who helped to transform newspapers and create the modern concept of news and news reporting was
James Gordon Bennett and Horace Greeley
Novels were very popular among American women in the antebellum period for what reasons?
sentimental, subversive (challenging male authority) message that women could overcome
A typical antebellum theatre:
was large and crowded, had cheap seats, lots of prostitutes, rowdy audiences
Who was the most popular dramatist in antebellum America?
Will Shakespeare
How did the popular minstrel show help to shape public perceptions of blacks during the antebellum period?
forged stereotypes of white supremacy by diminishing blacks
Why was PT Barnum a phenomenal success?
he tapped public desire for natural wonders; people's curiosity
What did the transcendentals believe?
God and Freedom are innate, knowledge is instant, nature is benign
What was the subject of Emerson's "The American Scholar"?
the individual & philosophy
Which writer introduced into fiction the American frontiersman and the theme of conflict detween civilization and primitive life in the wilderness
James Fenimore Cooper
Who defended the right to disobey unjust laws?
Henry David Thoreau
hOW DID THE WRITINGS OF Emerson, Thoreau, and Whitman differ from those of hawthorne, Poe, and Melville?
they wrote about ordinary things
during the antebellum period, American painters liked to paint:
Samuel Colt:
invented the revolving pistol
What were the goals of the hudson River school of painters?
emphasize emotional effect through scenery
Compared with the North, the Old South had a higher:
murder rate
What crops were associated with the old south?
sugar cane, tobacco, cotton, rice
Why did cotton become king in the South
growing British textile industry, Indian removal, shrinking tobacco market
Which of the following accurately describes the Upper and Lower South?
lower south: cash crops; Upper South: veggies
Factories developed slowly in the South for what reasons?
slavery, money (capital), benefits thought to be remote and doubtful
Southern education lagged behind northern education because:
Southerners rejected compulsory education and were reluctant to tax property
By 1860 what percentage of white southerners owned slaves?
How many slaves would half of all slaveowning families have owned
less than five
life for most plantation mistresses was marked by
hard work
the typical southern yeoman hoped for:
self-sufficiency w/modest profit
What were the characteristics of the white folk of the pine barrens
sometimes squatted on land, did not raise cash crops, lived in crude cabins, self-sufficient, fiercely independent
Describe antebellum southern politics
plantation owners dominated, did not always get their way
Why did nonslaveholding southerners support slave system
seperated the races socially & legally
The proslavery argument:
it was a positive good, rather than a necessary evil, biblical justification, ancient & classical institution
What shaped relations among whites in the Old South?
religion, code of Honor
One of the few groups in the Old South to speak against the duelin, brawling, and drinking of southern society was:
Protestant/ Evangelical churches & Ministers
How had the American slave population changed by about 1830?
slaves as likely to be male as female, born to USA
A west African cultural hallmark:
broad kinship
Why were some slaves allowed to work in towns or cities?
shortage in white labor
where did over half of all free blacks in the Lower South live?
What profession was open to free blacks in the Old South
carpenters, coopers, barbers, small traders
why did the growth rate of the free black population in the South slow after 1810?
fewer masters freed their slaves
Which of following was a common form of slave resistance:
theft, carelessness, fake illness, refusal to work, arson, poisoning
What was the pattern followed by most runaway slaves:
visit spouses or avoid punishment
first prerequisite for slave culture:
common language
Southern ecangelical churches generally preached against all of the following activities
What were the most interracial instirutions in old south
In 1860 what groups accounted for 3/4 of all foreign-born American
irish, german
Where did German and Irish immigrants tend to sttle in the United
large urban places
How did Irish and German immigrants of the 1840s differ from each?
Irish: poor, Catholic; Germans: isolated
In the case of Commonwealth v. Hunt, Supreme Court ruled that
labor unions were not monopolies that restricted trade
In the 1820s and 1830s what kind of relationship did Americans have with the people and lands of the Far West
links via St. Louis & Santa Fe
Presidios were
forts constructed by Spaniards in the Southwest
What was the cause of the increasingly tense relations between the Mexican government and the American residents in Texas after 1830?
slavery disputes
The Whig political program in 1840 included
replacing Independant Treasury revised tariff
Why was John Tyler's ascendary to the presidency a disaster for the Whig party?
favored democratic policy and shredded party goaled
The senate rejected the treaty annexing Texas drawn up by Secretary of State Calhoun because
it allowed for and protected slavery
Why did James K. Polk win the presidency of 1844?
he convinced Northerners of the benefits of annexing Texas; immigrants vote, fickle Whig position
What were the background causes of the Mexican-American War:
failure to pay debt, memories of the Alamo, issues of Texas
What did Polk want from Mexico in 1845
recognition of Texas, New Mexico, California
In the US opposition to the Mex-Am war included all of the following reasons except that:
army outnumbered
In the MexAm the US was victorious virtually all its encounters with Mex forces for all the reasons except:
sheer numbers
What were the terms of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?
ceded texas, n.m., and california
What military leader in the Mexam war becam a national hero?
Robert e. Lee
The Wilmot Proviso was a:
proposed amendment to ban slavery in all territories purchased by negotiation
Why did Calhoun believe that the gov't had no power to prohibit slavery in Mexican Cession?
slaveholders had a right to take slaves with them
Why did the wigs think Zach Taylor was an ideal candidate for prezz?
slaveholder, without regard to creed or principles
What groups formed the 1848 free-soil party to nominate Van Buren for prezz?
pro wilmot-democrats, abolitionist "Liberty Party", "Conscience" Whigs
population of gold rush san fran was:
The issues of Compromise of 1850 included all of the following except
Dred Scott case
one of zach taylor's views was that it
should be left to the states
what was the cornerstone of southern slavery defense?
nothing in Const. to forbid it
The failure of the Compromise of 1850 to bridge underlying slavery differences could be seen in the fact that:
only shifting alliances among moderates achieved its passage
Henry Clay's Omnibus bill's provisions:
admission of Cali as a free state, division of NM, Utah, settlement of Tex/NM border dispute, better fug. law, abolition of slave TRADE in D.C., gov't assumes debt of texas
In the pres. elec. of 1852:
dismantled Whig party, centered around popular sovereignty
which of the following is one of the reasons that the whig party began to disintegrate and decline in the 1850s?
disputes over fugitive slave law
Douglas's motives in sponsoring the Kansas-Nebraska act included:
Pacific railroad: unite Demo. factions
What were the features of the Kansas-Neb. act?
dicide territories into North & South states, barely passed in House, nullified Missouri Compromise
what were the free soil posistions on slavery?
slavery impeded white progress, free labor would disentegrate, domino theory, Southern conspiracy
What was the Gadsden purchase?
purchase of southern tip of Arizona
Ostend Manifesto pertained to
acquisition of Cuba
The Know-Nothin party declined rapidly for all the following reasons except that:
the policy's open policy for membership & public meeting
What groups created the new Repub. party?
know-nothings, northern demos, whigs
main issue unifying otherwise diverse new repub party:
James Buch. position on slavery
wrong, but did nothing
1856 election result:
know-nothings unite under repub. banner
Republican party position in election of 1860:
economic platform; anti-slavery
1860 Repub. Econ platform:
support for tariff, federal aid for internal improvements, grants to settlers
Elements of John Crittendon's Compromise:
compensation for owners of runaway slaves, repeal of personal liberty laws, restore missouri compromise line, amendment to protect southern slavery
"New Light Stir" provided ground for:
free-will baptists, shakers, universalists
Thomas Campbell
Ulster minister who emigrated to Pennsylvania; identified with Baptist cause
Goals of the "Campbellites"/Disciples of Christ:
return to primitive, N.T. church, avoid all the many denominations
Ellen Gould White founded which modern religions:
Adventists, 7th-day Baptists

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