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social studies 3 test


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Queen Makeda
rose to the throne of Sheba (modern day Ethiopia in East Africa) in 1005 BC; according to legend, she met with King Solomon and introduced Judaism to her empire
Ibn Battuta
a young Arab lawyer from Morocco, who, in 1325 began his travles through the muslim world for 30 years, covering a distance of more than 73,000 miles
Mogadishu, Kilwa, Mombasa and Zanzibar
a string of trading ports extending down the east african coast which, in the 1300's, became major links in an Indian Ocean trading network
Extended Families
families made up of several generations, including anywhere from ten to hundreds of members; families formed the basis of African society
King Ewuare
founded the emipre of Benin around 1440
Niger River
located in West Africa, its rich soil gave rise to several civilizations; it also helped unite the region by enabling merchants and travelers to spread goods and ideas up and down the river
harvested by slaves when the Portuguese settled the Atlantic ideas of Madeira, Azores, and Cape Verde
began the slave trade in the 1440s
Sunni Ali
the leader of the Songhai, who in 1468, stormed into Timbuktu and drove out the Berbers beginning a campaign of conquest of the Sahara; by the time of his death in 1492 he had built the largest empire in west Africa
African Art
earliest form is cave paintings; art and religion developed hand in hand; works of art also told stories and served practical purposes as well such as cloth used in clothing
Sundiata and Sunni Ali
western Africa's two great empire builders who were criticized for spending more time on stopping rebellions than spreading religion
Queen Dahia al-Kahina
led the fight against the Muslim invasion of her kingdom in AD 600
a language that comes from an Arabic word meaning "people of the coast"; by 1331 it represented the unique culture of East Africa's coast as well as the language spoken there
villages, especially Bantu, who traced their descent through mothers, rather than fathers
Great Rift Valley
a valley in East Africa where some of the earliest human fossils have been found
Trade Winds
trade winds are a pattern of wind that are found in bands around the Earth's equatorial region. The trade winds are the prevailing winds in the tropics,
trading city captured by Sundiata
sail boats powered by a wind-catching, triangular sail that let Arab traders sail to Africa
Aski Muhammad
while ruler of Songahi, he built the largest empire in medieval west africa, keeping local courts in place while also honoring muslim laws; he also made Timbuktu an important center of Islamic culture and learning, and set up schools to teach Quran
city state in Ethiopia (Abyssinia) that was the power center of the empire, owing its strength to its location on the Red sea
tropical, sweeping grasslands that make up much of Africa; they have high temperatures and uneven rains, and are perfect for raising herds of animals
an area of high flat land, on which rests most of Africa
the people who drove out the Berbers in 1468; their empire lasted almost 130 years
Mutota and Matope
kings in 1400s who turned Zimbabwe into a large empire stretching from south of the Zambezi River to the Indian Ocean; Matope was Mutota's son
Congo River
a waterway twisting 2,700 miles through the rain forests of Central Africa
neigboring city-state to Axum that was defeated by Axum around 300 AD
Plantation crops
cotton, grapes, sugarcane, tobacco, rice and cotton
a kingdom in the Niger delta rain forest located near the Equator
North Africans who figured out how to cross the Sahara to West Africa, which opened up trade routes around 400 BC using horses and donkeys
the Arab kingdom that defeated the Songhai in 1591using cannons and guns
the first empire to develop in Africa; which rose to power in 400 AD. It was located where several trade routes came together
Africa's Geography
a vast and varied landscape made up of shifting sand dunes, rain forests, sweeping savannas, large deserts, and coastal plains
this kingdom conquered Ghana in the 1200s
Red Sea
body of water between northeast Africa and the Arabian Peninsula that was a key source of trade between Africa and East Asia
people who founded Zimbabwe in AD 700
Islamic holy book that forbade enslavement of Muslims; however muslims could enslave non-muslims
Power of Kings
the central authority in the most successful states such as Ghana
located in North Africa, was traded for gold and ivory from West Africa; this trade led to the growth of cities in western Africa
King Azana
the king of Axum who defeated Kush, who later helped bring a new religion to Africa when he converted to Christianity, which he made the official religion of Axum in AD 334
story tellers
wandering fishing groups along the Benue River who packed their belongings in their canoes; they then left their homeland and settled in other parts of Africa, spreading their culture with them including pottery making, mining, and iron-working; many of the ideas and traditions in modern day Africa are attributable to the Bantu migrations of 1,500 years ago.
Role of Women
acted mostly as wives and mothers in Africa; had less rights than men; there were exceptions however as in some cases women were soldiers and became rulers
Monotheist people in East Africa who thought people could talk directly with God
were introduced to North Africa when the Romans conquered it, bringing in camels from Central Asia; camels revolutionized trade because their broad feet did not sink in the sand and their humps stored fat for food; they could also travel many days without water; camels were grouped together to form caravans
Iron Weapons
Ghana knew how to make these weapons, which were used to conquer its neighbors; people were willing to pay fees to Ghana to gain access to its iron weapons
Music and Dance
played a part in almost all aspect of African life; people used it to express their religious feelings or through an every day task, like planting a field; Africans believed dance allowed the spirits to express themselves
Queen Nzinga
ruled lands in modern day Angola and Congo, who spent almost 40 years battling Portuguese slave traders in an effort to stop them from enslaving her people
a kingdom in the Congo river basin rain forest along the Equator
an African people who believed in one supreme god who could only be talked to by less powerful gods and goddesses
African Diaspora
the spreading of African people and culture around the world
Mansa Musa
the last strong king of Mali, whose death began the decline of the Mali empire
Sundiata Keita
the "lion prince" warrior-king of Mali who is credited with conquering the capital of Ghana in 1240
a tax paid to Ghana's rulers by traders passing through; the taxes (fees) made Ghana rich
Guns for slaves
European guns in West Africa opened a new market for slaves
Benue River
A river in Western Africa where fishing groups packed belongings in their canoes around 3,000 BC, and began wandering around Africa. The Bantu originated here
was the responsibility of the family and other villagers in Africa's villages
a group of people descended from the same ancestor
Ways slaves can get free
when a fee is paid for them; or if they work hard or marry a free person
African slavery
read page 233
people who wandered in the deserts of Africa
Council of Ministers
close advisers to the Kings of Ghana

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