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AAAS Test 1


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Two implications of your textbook's title, To Make Our World Anew
1. A phrase in the Langston Hughes' poem "To You" - a call to change this "problem world"
2. The experience of Af. Americans is best understood as an ongoing effort to reshape their world. Af Americans' efforcs to remake their world are responsible for some of the msot profound economic, political, and cultural developments in the Modern west
Many scholars have abandoned the use of "race" as a way to categorize Africans, instead they use..
language groups
The western african kingdom of Ghana was conquered by... which is conquered by
Ghana -> Mali -> Songhai
In the 8th century, what religion began to gain converts in N. and sub-Saharan Africa?
What european nations pioneered the slave trade
How many Africans were brought to the Americas as slaves? How many ended up in the U.S.?
10-12 million -> Americas
550,000 -> U.S.
What was an "asiento"?
asiento = contract. A spanish licensing system in 1600's. A slave trading company was granted the sole right to supply a given number of slaves to colonies for a specified number of years.
In the early 16th century, what replaced mining as the major source of income for european powers in the Caribbean and Latin America?
sugar trade
What occurred in 1502?
introduction of African slaves to Hispaniola (island in Caribeans)
What occurred in 1619?
beginning of black slavery in British America
Who is Rober Henderson?
18 year old Omaha state trooper who was fired from his job because he was a member of White Knights (KKK).
What is the English translation of Elmina? what was Elmina?
Elmina = the mine
Gee's Bend, Alabama, is known for...
Af. American ladies making exquisite quilts.
What is the significance, to this course, of Herman Edwards?
He is the son of a black WWII veteran and a German war lady. His parents' union signifies a "fugitive moment of compassion"
What is the significance of the phrase "European cravings"?
In order to satify European cravings, such as tobacco and sugar, million of Af Am were enslaved
What was the purpose of "seasoning"
to break the wills of the Af Am but not their bodies
Of the 10 to 12 million africans take to the americas, the largest number (? million) were sent to ...
4-5 million were sent to Brazil
In the triangular trade:
Europe -> Africa ?
Africa -> new world ?
new world -> europe ?
In the triangular trade:
Europe -> Africa = manufactured goods and weapons
Africa -> new world = africans
new world -> europe = raw materials and crops
In what two ways did African enslavement of other Africans differ from black slavery that would develop in the new world?
1. africans treated their slaves in a more humane manner
2. slavery was not hereditary in Africa
3 reasons why the study of history is so important?
1. help us understand change
2. help us separate myth from reality
3. help us solve crims and mysteries
4. help us recapture "fugitive moments of compassion"
5. help us sharpen our perception of how bad things have been and still are
Explain the phrase "fugitive moments of compassion"
in difficult situations in history, people who are supposed to be enemies showed their ability to resist, to join together, and to sometimes win
the first black studies program was established at what instituion?
san francisco state college
KU african studies program was established in waht year?
1970 (?)
4 objective of Black Studies
1. to teach the blak experience
2. to establish black studies as a legitimate and permanent discipline
3. to contribute to intellectual and political freedom
4. to engage in community service and development
why did we watch black hawk down?
many pple still see africa through a hazy and stereotyping lense. many pple still don't understand their differences. this can have serious political implications
5 course of objectives of AAAS 106
1. explore the af. am experience in interdisciplinary fashion
2. to appreciate and respect af am culture
3. to address - through the lense of Af history and culture - the question, "what is an american?"
4. to bridge the gap between "ancient" history and contemporary concerns
5. to sharpen writing and critical thinking skills
why study the african background - 4 reasons
1. roots and branches
2. myths, stereotypes, centrisms
3. our journeys through slavery
4. contemporary issues
african slaves rejected part of Christianity and Islam but they also fused parts of Christianity and Islam they liked into their native religions
When did Portugal start slavery? When did the Elminas form?
1441; 1482
1441 -
1482 -
1502 -
1516 -
1619 -
1441 - portugal started slave trade
1482 - elmina - the mine
1502 - introduction of af slaves to Hispaniola, island in the caribbeans
1516 - first sugar mill built on Hispaniola, replaces mining as king
1619 - beginning of black slavery in Brit America
diaspora = dispersal of africans to americas due to slavery
Amistad, 1997 speilberg movie
ship - l'amistad = friendship
1839: mutiny
1841: supreme court ruled in favor
Double consciousness / the two-ness / paradox of loyalty
what does it mean to be african and american? there can be conflict b/w the two identities.
w.e. Dubois wrote ... about race relations and double consciousness
book: the souls of black folk
examples of constructive and destructive mythologies
*constructive - story of american independence
*destructive - blackface shows
examples of contradiction and hypocrisy
1. L. Frank Baum (extermination of Native Americans)
2. Francis Scott Key (member of Am. colonization Society)
3. John Locke - slaves had no rights that masters need to respect
fugitive moments of compassion
1. Herman Edwards - son of black WWII vet and German lady
2. John Newton - "amazing grace" lyrics, slave ship owner, treated slaves more humanely after the storm
3. Bacon's Rebellion 1676 - rebellion by the underclass
4. Wheatley's mistress encourage her to get an education
black cornerstones, ie?
family, religion/tradition/faith, music, language, education,
black resistance, ie?
hip-hop, black art, poems
intersectionality of ? and ?
race, class
what's colorism aka the color complex?
light skinned preferred over dark skinned. European standards of beauty
what was "the terrible transformation"? approximately when did it happen? what is one way in which its occurence has been documented?
servitude became hereditary. happened in the middle of 1600's. Anthony Johnson, aka Anthony the Negro
"the first passage" was what time period?
1502 - 1619
africans from what african kingdom was in america before 1619
3M's of conquest
1. mailed fist
2. microbe
3. membrum febrilis
what are the 3 labor options in early americas. give pros and cons for each
1. europeans - if escaped they can easily blend in, appeal to church
2. native am - know the land, disease
3. africans - 'unexhaustible' supply, skin-color
what are the 3 significant points for black resistance?
1. destruction of stereotypes - i.e. blacks accepted bondage
2. tradition of resistance - resistance began at the point of capture
3. heroes, not just victims
4 forms of resistance:
1. challeng the established order
2. dimisnish/eliminate its hold
3. force changes in its place
4. escape its control
name some examples of resistance at other times, other places
1. shaolin - gong fu - late 400's - government persecution - dispersed
2. viet cong
3. masada, israel - 1st century - suicide to avoid Roman rule
4. palmares - brazil - escaped slaves to mountain top surrounded by jungle - capoeira: dance/martial arts
5 forms of black resistance:
1. day to day
2. cultural
3. abolitionism
4. emigrationism - leave country
5. armed struggle
how is the af am experience like science fiction?
1. alien abduction
2. parallel universes
3. use the known to make sense of the unknown
name the southern colonies
Can Mom Get Vacation/Vodka?
Carolina, Maryland, Georgia, Virginia
name the middle colonies
Please Do Not Nag
Pennsylvania, Delaware, new jersey, new york
name the new england colonies
Conneticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New Hampshire
the terrible transformation
what was virginia's cash crop?
4 measures did the sourthern colonies take to keep the slaves down?
1. Durante vita & TTT - slavery hereditary and perpetual -> slave based
2. child takes mother's status
3. anti-miscegenation (inter-race breeding)
4. slaves are baptized, but..
what was the buffer colony?
staple crop of georgia?
three important crops in carolinas?
sugar, rice & indigo
the Barbadian system was transplanted to which colony?
name 4 ways in which slavery in the middle and new england colonies are different from slavery in the southern colonies?
1. smaller black population
2. "milder" form of slavery
3. slave trading vs. slave holding - milder attitude
4. larger, faster-growing free black population
which state is the first and which is the last to outlaw slavery?
first - mass. 1641,
last - georgia, 1750
two reasons slavery was doomed from the outset in middle colonies?
1. work ethic and religious/moral convictions of certain groups - do their own work or do work alongside slaves
2. commercial economy supplemented subsistence agriculture
manumission = ?
what are the only 2 feature length films made about the revolution?
The Patriot & Revolution
why so few films made about the revolution? 3 reasons
1. can't tamper with the sacred
2. myths are important to the establishment of America
3. unpopular to explroe the grew area, to contrast between ideals and reality
examples of Am revolution mythologies? 4 examples
1. paul revere was not the only one
2. betty ross was not the first person to make the Am. flag
3. nathan hale may not have said "i regret.. one life"
4. patrick henry may not have said "give me liberty or give me death" or regretted saying that
how did the vietnam war parallel the revolutionary war?
guerilla warfare, fighting world's superpower, drain superpower's military and patience, aided by antagonist to superpower (france, china).

Ho chi minh borrowed heavily from the declraction of independence
who was jefferson's mistress?
sally heming
what is somerset case of 1772
james somerset. illegal to hold anyone in bondage in england regardless of race
When did Britain and U.S. abolish the slave trade and then slavery?
abolish slave trade - brit 1807 - us 1808
abolish slavery - brit 1833 - us 1865 (13th)
Blacks and the revolutionary war - historical pattern in the military
* volunteerism - joined the militia at lexington and concord
* rejection - rejected by the continental army
* reconsidered by "powers that be"
* valor and sacrifice
What british authority offer blakcs freedom if they fought for the british during the revolutionary war?
Lord Dunmore
the 3 W's of paradox of loyalty
fighting for what, for whom, against who?
after the revolutionary war, name 2 ways in whichh promise and fulfillment did not meet
1. reenslavement
2. gradual emancipation in the north - slaves' children
"durante vita" is latin for
duration of life
what's the significance, to Af Am history, of "bacon rebellion"
class was more important than race
most indentured servitude was for terms of how many years?
5-7 years
what european country was the last to participate in the slave-trade plantation system?
what country was the first great african civilization?
Prince Henry, nicknamed "?" was one of the earliest portuguese explorers
"the navigator"
in the treaty of "what" did Spain recognize Portugal's supremacy in slave trade?
Treaty of Alacovas
The treaty of "what" permitted the Protuguese to trade on African coast and in Asia and Brazil, while Spaniards were confined to the Americas.
Treaty of Tordesillas
What is Las Siete Partidas (the Seven Parts)?
Spanish laws that granted slaves the right to marry, inherit property, and to be freed under certain conditions
what is the main industry on Hispaniola (nowadays Haiti)
what are "obrajes"?
textile factories, mainly in Mexico, during the 1500's
what is a "ingenio"?
sugar mill in the caribbean (Hispaniola)
what types of work did african slaves perform during 1500's
mining, sugarcane, pearl-fishing, artisans, carpenters, domestic workers, pastoral activities
what is "encomienda"?
spanish labor system. indians work for spaniards without pay, but receive education in religion, customs, etc. Not slavery techinically, but abuse happened
what is "repartimiento"?
a spanish system that replaced the "encomienda" system. Indians were paid, but they were contracted out to different spaniards
encomienda was replaced by what, which is replaced by what?
encomienda -> repartimiento -> a system of debts
what spanish bishop openly argued that indians were not inferior to spaniards?
Bishop Las Casas
what are the three principle groups of africans in spanish colonies during the 1500's
1. ladinos - african born, have spent time in europe
2. bozales - directly from africa to americas
3. criollos (creoles) - born in americas
what are "amancebado" relationships
co-living before marriage.. slaves could be punished by the church for this
what is a "cofradia" in spanish america during 1500's?
religious brotherhoods that some af. am are part of. they meet social and political needs
who are "zambos"?
children of indians and africans.. who take the status of the mother.. and become free
slaves in spanish america during 1500's were divided along what lines?
ethnic lines, cultural differences (F.O.B and experienced ones)
Spanish called the escaped slaves "what" and English called them "what?"
spanish - cimarrones - meaning untamed
english - maroon
in 1542, there were how many cimarrones in hispaniola?
2000 to 3000
who is Yanga
leader of the most well-known community of cimarrones
what represented the first truly black societies in the americas?
communities of runaway slaves
in north america, slaves were freed in what year? who was the last country to emancipate?
u.s. 1865.
brazil last 1888
in what ways can slaves become legally free?
1. child born to a free woman
2. old slaves who have served faithfully
3. buy freedom
free blacks never exceed ? %
5 to 10%
rights of free blacks were restricted in what way?
1. blacks were ordered to work for spaniards for a wage
2. register with local authorities
3. refused membership to craftsmen associations, and only given apprentices
4. excluded from high schools
5. bury w/o coffins
slave trade made profits of ?%
5% to 20%
name some impacts of slave trade on african societies?
1. depopulation in some regions
2. new food crops introduced, improved diets
3. stronger ones dominated with access to guns.. weakers ones disappeared.
4. africans developed a taste for consumer goods provided by europeans. africans failed to develop their own industries. this in the long run accountted for their falling behind europeans in manufacturing
who is "esteban"?
a spanish speaking african who came with conquistadors. Esteban is the first african to emerge clearly in the pageas of N. America history
in the beginning of 1600's, Christian europeans still tended to see poliicla and relgious, not physical differences.. true or false?
what was the Elizabeth aka "black bess" case?
under english common law, child takes status of father. in 1662 virginia assembly ruled for her to be a slave, like her mom.
who are "saltwater negroes"?
africans who endured the atlantic crossing
how many slaves arrived during the final generation of slave trade - 1776 to 1807. how many during 1675 to 1775
200,000 slaves arrived during the final generation of slave trade - 1776 to 1807. 400,000 during 1675 to 1775
when did "racism" first emerge as a solid feature in N. america?
early 1700's
who is "solomon" aka "the fortunate slave"?
african with rich and powerful father. he was captured and sent to america as a slave, but was able, with his connections and luck, to return to africa
how did Equiano differ from Solomon?
Equiano did not return to africa and did nto become do slave trading. He traveled and spoke against slavery in Britain
what is the nickname of the pest house on Sullivan Island in south carolina?
"the Ellis Island of black America" - a quarantine station for new slaves
what types of work did african slaves perform in n. america?
cut trees, make barrels, roads, domestic labor
south - pick cotton
what trades/skills did europeans learn from africans?
rice cultivation in South Carolina,
when spanish king issued an edict granting freedom to english runway slaves, news trigger an uprising at "where". English passed what "law" in return to restrict movement of blacks?
Stono landing in Charleston.
Negro Act
Who is "Attucks"?
Attucks is the son of a black man and an indian woman. he played a key role in the Boston Massacre of 1770.
identify peter salem and salem poor?
black soldiers who fought bravely during revolutionary battles
4 slaves petitioned to who in 1773 for the right to relocate to Africa
massachusetts assembly
who is "Phillis Wheatley"?
Wheatley was the first Af Am to publish a book of poetry and was one of the most highly educated young women in Boston at the time
list movements that were against slavery?
1. great awakening religious revival movment
2. evangelical protestantism and millennialism - man's sinful nature can be changed
3. Enlightenment - society through reason coudl be perfected
what economic change made arguments of abolitionists more effective?
mercantilism -> free trade and free labor
Adam Smith's wealth of nations 1775 argued that...
slavery is inefficient and brutal

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