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Bioconcepts Exam 3


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In Tay-Sachs, the cause of the disease can be traced to several mutations the Hexa gene, which encodes for an enzyme crucial for the degradation of a brain ________.
fatty acid
The _________ is a useful device to determine the probability of inheritance, and is usually represented by a 2 x 2 grid showing combinations of parental alleles.
Punnett Square
_________ is the most common genetic disorder in the United States.
Cystic fibrosis
Duchene muscular dystrophy and Color blindness are examples of _______ disorders.
Chromosomal disorders are a group of genetic disorders where the genetic changes have occurred at the level of the __________
In 1977, Fred Sanger developed the technology for sequencing DNA, and was the first person to sequence the DNA of a _________.
The human genome contains about ________ bases.
3 billion
Although the number of _______ in the human genome was estimated to be about 100,000, in fact it turned out to only be about a quarter of that.
Even thought humans have relatively few genes, the process of _______ allows for the same exons to encode for multiple proteins.
Alternative splicing
Even though we are one of the most complex organisms on the planet, less than ____ percent of the human genome is used to encode functional proteins.
In eukaryotic organisms, genes are not contiguous, but instead are split into small segments, known as ________.
DNA sequences that resemble genes but are non-functional and are likely to be the remains of once-active genes that have mutated into non-functional genes are called _______.
_______ are examples of repeating sequences in the human genome, with repeats of only 2 to 3 base pairs
Some of the most abundant junk DNA in the human genome is made of ________, which are DNA sequences that behave like viruses and act independently.
The sequencing of the human genome shows us that _______ is power, _______ is predicting, and that ________ is ruling.
Knowledge Explaining, Predicting
Type I diabetes is an ________ disease, because the bodies own cells are perceived to be foreign and are destroyed by the immune system.
Fetal alcohol syndrome is a _________ disorder, where the normal brain is altered by a prenatal exposure to alcohol.
For Fetal Alcohol syndrome, it appears that the greatest damage is done during the time most mothers do not know when they are __________.
After an egg is fertilized by a sperm it forms a ______ .
The mixing of cells from two different fertilized eggs together will result in a mosaic creature known as a _______.
Children, nicknamed Snowflake Kids, are children who have been born from ______ embryos.
Any developmental biologist will assert that the most important event in your life is not birth, marriage, or death but it is _________ .
The frequency of conjoined twins is 1 in ________ births.
The _______ layer of the gastrula will go on to form the muscle, cartilage, and bone of the fetus.
Although many people feel that the birth of a child is a miracle, it is even more astounding when one considers the fact that over _____ percent of embryos are either unable to undergo gastrulation or fail to successfully execute it.
Fertilization in humans occurs in one of the females _________.
Fallopian tubes
In 1997, , the cloning of a sheep named _______ provided proof that nuclear transfer of DNA also works in mammals.
Spinal cord injuries are not treatable because cranial nerve cells in adult humans cannot ______ once they are injured.
Scientists have found that there are a small group of genes known as the ______ genes which are responsible for directing the body pattern formation in all animals.
The simple round worm known as Caenorhabditis elegans is a great model organism to study development because it has less than _______ cells.
Sexual reproduction creates__________ between the sexes.
__________ within a species benefits the species by guaranteeing that some members of the species can adapt to ________________ changes.
heterogeneity, environment
Human males produce _____________ to _____________ sperm per ejaculation, which increases the chance of _____________.
200 million, 300 million, fertilization
The operational sex ratio is a ratio between ____________ males to _________ females.
sexually receptive; sexually receptive
The OSR reflects a situation of ___________ and _____________.
supply; demand
Ibex males will _____________ other males for the chance to take control of the female herd and thus mate with them.
When another lion takes over a pride, he will typically _____________ the cubs, which will in turn causes the female to be__________________ towards him.
kills; sexually receptive
Some insect species use ______________________ , in the form of food, to attract potential mates.
mating gifts
_________________ ________________ is a type of male competition where the males search for and mate with females as soon as they are sexually receptive.
scramble competition
____________ ______________ is an category of male attraction strategies, where the male will have showy feathers or vibrant plumage which is used to attract females.
Ornamental Display
As seen in the video, lyrebirds will mark out several territories on the forest floor and perform a song and dance. These territories are otherwise known as _____________.
Morphological and ________ attributes of a male that lead to successful mating will be passed on to the next generation.
Male ruby-throated humming birds will defend _______________ that females need for reproduction.
__________ is defined as using the biological traits of an organism; the ________ of these traits results in a female or male organism.
sex, sum
The male sex hormone is _______________, which is produced by the ________________ and the ___________.
testosterone; testes; adrenal glands
All _________ have the potential to become either male or female because they both have the same chromosomes except for the sex chromosomes.
At __________ after fertilization an embryo will receive cues that will determine if it will develop as either male or female.
6 weeks
Under the influence of estrogen, the ____________ ducts will begin to transform into internal female ___________.
Mullerian; genitalia
In male embryos the ____________ gene on the Y chromosome becomes active at around 6 weeks after fertilization.
In males, testosterone stimulates the development of the ___________ ducts into internal genitalia, while the ___________ develops into external the genitalia.
Wolffian; cloaca
Although, the SRY gene acts as a ________________, there are about ________________ genes implicated in sexual development.
master switch; 10-12
Estrogens and testosterone belong to a group of hormones called ____________, and both originate from the same precursor, ________________.
steroid hormones; cholesterol
______________ occurs in 1:1,000 male births and the characteristics of this syndrome are infertility, abnormal secondary sex characteristics, and long limb physique.
Kleinfelter syndrome
_________________ or super male syndrome occurs in 1 out of every 850 male births and the male will exhibit _____________ secondary sex characteristics and will be _____________.
XXY; normal; fertile
In crocodiles _____________ determines the sex of the offspring.
___________ is an attitude that attributes human motivations, characteristics, or behaviors to inanimate objects, animals, or natural phenomena.
In males, both the primary and the secondary ________ characteristics are the under the control of testosterone.
Females may choose a male bird with the most perfect plumage because dull or drab feathers may indicate that a male is carrying many _________ .
The intensity of the red color in the feathers of the male house finch is related to how well he

_________ .
Human _______ are an advertisement for good genes, fertility, and health, and particularly humans are attracted to perfect symmetry in this feature.
It has been shown that human _____ genes, which are important in fighting off disease, can be detected by females who can tell smell the proteins these genes produce.
When human females pick faces of potential male mates, it was noticed that their choice was dependent on their level of sexual susceptibility. For instance, during _______ , the females tended to select a masculine sexual partner.
Male _________ capture prey and pass it to the female in mid-flight, as a way to demonstrate his hunting and aerial skills.
Marsh Harriers
When you are hungry and smell food cooking, you automatically start to salivate. This is an example of a _______ which triggers a fixed action pattern.
sign stimuli
In wolf spiders, the males display a large ________ on their legs, which they use to entice a female to breed.
tuft of hair
The migration and mating behavior of sockeye salmon results from a powerful biological ______ that is triggered by both genetic and environmental factors, causing the adults to make a 1,500 mile journey to spawn.
For humans, riding a bicycle is an example of a learned ________ program, because it takes multiple steps to perform the task.
A ________ causation describes how or by what mechanism an animal behaves.
Chimpanzee society is dominated by ______ who often kill young behave violently.
One explanation for why Bonobo societies developed differently from chimpanzees was due to the extinction of __________ who once prevented Bonobos from feeding on the ground.
With the current growth rate of 1.2%, the human global population at 2050 is likely to be over ______ billion.
The current population size of _______ is currently at 1.1 billion, and it is predicted that the country of ________ is the world’s most populous nation.
India, China
The _________ influences the size of a population by affecting the reproductive strategies that are used by the organisms.
Organisms that live in an environment with unstable resources produce a large number of offspring. This type of reproductive strategy is known as ________.
Species that use the _________ strategy live in an environment with predictable resources and a low predation rate.
__________ is a measure of how many individuals an environment can support based on the availability of resources.
Carrying capacity
Around the year 1 AD, the worlds human population was estimated to be about __________.
300 million
The development of societies based on __________ at about 10,000 years ago was largely responsible for expanding the human population.
Since the industrial revolution, the large growth in the human population has been sustained by the development and the use of __________ for food production.
Pandemic diseases, illiteracy, and sanitation breakdowns are just some of the results of human __________.
By 2050, the world population could reach 11 billion, if the global fertility rate remains above _____ children per family.
It has been estimated that the _______ policy has reduced the population of China by as much as 300 to 400 million people.
one child
Even though _______ has the longest life expectancy in the world, its population is shrinking because of low _________.
Japan, birth rates
Although the birth rate in the U.S. is relatively low, the U.S. population has continued to grow because of the addition of _________.
Even though sub-Saharan African is experiencing an increase in its population, it also has an epidemic of _______, which is have devastating effects on its population.
West Nile fever and Japanese encephalitis are examples of diseases caused by _______.
An average human brain weighs _____.
3 pounds
Even though the brain makes up only ___ percent of the body weight, it uses _____ percent of the body’s energy supply.
2, 20
Research has demonstrated that the __________ is the processing center in the brain for short-term memory.
Nerve cells are operated by a combination of electrical currents and ___________ transmitters.
Axons release _________ across the cleft of synapses, after receiving electrical signals from nerves.
These basic functions of nerves have remained essentially unchanged for ________ million years.
During most of their adult life, __________ workers perform many duties in the hives, however, in the last two weeks of their life, all individuals transform into foragers.
honey bee
________ are small mammals of the mongoose family, and are highly social animals, forming groups as large as 40 individuals.
Humans live in a ____________ society that has frequent changes in alliances, both between individuals and between groups.
In humans, _______ is a powerful way to attract a mating partner through the demonstration of intelligence, wit, and eloquence.
A brain’s complexity results mainly from the types and numbers of _________ that each nerve cell has with other nerve cells.

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