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Chapter 5


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chief joseph
Leader of the Nez Perce, surrendered to US forces in 1877 and exiled to Oklahoma
battle of little big horn
was the battle between the U.S. army and the sioux indians; the sioux defeated the u.s. army
vertical integration
when a firm would strive to control all aspects of production (from acquisition of raw materials to the finished product)
plessy vs. ferguson
court upheld segregation. allowed legalized segregation
political machine
organization of professional politicians.
tammany hall
political machine headed by william marcy tweed.
george armstrong custer
United States general who was killed along with all his command by the Sioux at the battle of Little Bighorn (1839-1876)
gold standard
the Us dollar was on this. meaning that it could only be redeemed for gold in the treasury.
jim crow laws
creates and enforces public segregation
homestead act
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
Wounded Knee Massacre
In December 1890, Army troops captured some of Sitting Bull's followers and took them to a camp. 300 Sioux men, women, and children were killed
chisolm trail
main cattle trail
an organization that is authorized by law to carry on an activity but treated as though it were a single person
jane addams
founded the Hull House
booker washington
beleived african americans had to accept segregation for the moment. believed that they could improve by learning farming and vocational skills
an economic system based on open competition in a free market, in which individuals and companies own the means of production and operate for profit
called for bank regulation, government ownership of railroads, and unlimited freedom to coin silver
cornelius vanderbilt
invested in railroads in the civil war
sitting bull
American Indian chief, he lead the victory of Little Bighorn
laissez faire
business to operate with little to no government interference
oil company, horizontal integration
george pullman
designed sleeper cars and operated the last company town
thomas edison
invented the lightbulb, telegraph, and other things. first real research center
push and pull factors
push are the reasons people left their homes and pull factors are the reasons they moved to the west
gilded age
as businesses grew even larger, some corporate leaders amassed staggering fortunes
dawes act
Allotted to each head of household 160 acres of reservation land, and 40 acres allotted for children; remaining land sold to settlers to go to a trust for Natives; plan failed
WEB dubois
believed african americans should strive for full rights immediately helped find the Niagara movement
social gospel
faith should be expressed through good works,
risk takers who started new ventures with the economic sysstem called free enterprise
social darwinism
A social application of Charles Darwin's biological theory of evolution by natural selection, this late-nineteenth century theory encouraged the notion of human competitio and opposed intervention in the natural human order. Social Darwinists justified the increasing inequality of late-nineteeth-century industrial American society as natural.
native born americans saw immigrants as a threat
sherman antitrust act
made it illegal to form a trust that interferred with free trade between states or with other countries
ellis island vs. angel island
europeans passed through ellis and asians passed through angel
steel industry, vertical integration
ghost dance
Spiritual revival in 1890 by Indians that would lead to the massacre at Wounded Knee
bessemer process
made steel making faster and cheaper
Apache chieftain who raided the white settlers in the Southwest as resistance to being confined to a reservation (1829-1909)
Parcels of land set aside by the federal government for the Native Americans.
labor unions
Organizations of workers who, together, put pressure on the employers in an industry to improve working conditions and wages.
murder of an individual by a group or mob.
settlement house
offered immigrants services such as english classes and job training courses
Sand Creek Massacre
US army's killing of about 150 cheyenne elderly, women and children at the Sand Creek Reservation in Colorado territory
rundown apartment buildings

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