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Theatre 152


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Theatre is all about the _______.
"Love the art in you, not you in the art."
Konstantin Stanislavski
Two types of acting styles for actors:
1. Representational (internal)-becoming one with the character.
2. Presentational (external)-shows how people behave.
"That willing suspension of disbelief for the moment, which constitiutes poetic faith."
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Stanislavski's "system" (method) of acting:
-The actor's voice and body should be thouroughly trained to meet the demands placed on it.
-Be skilled observer of reality
-Seek an inner justification for everything done on the stage
-analyze the script (dramatic form)
"Acting is the art of persuasion"
Laurence Olivier
"The unexamined life is not worth living"
Socrates (470-399BC)
3 challenges to acting
1. To acquire the many skills-both physical and vocal-that stage performances demand (to master the craft of acting)
2. To make characters believable
3. To integrate these two, to combine skills with credibility.
3 controls of actors required:
1. The performer's body (body control)
2. The performer's voice (voice control)
3. Emotional Control
drama that closely resembles what people could identify with and verify from their own experience.
How did Stansislavski develop a system to teach believability to actors and how to achieve a sense of inner truth?
the "magic if", given circumstances, super objective, emotional recall.
The "magic if"
"If" is a word that can transform our thoughts, through it we can imagine ourselves in virtually any situation. "If I suddenly became wealthy..."
given cirucumstances
the performer must conceive the situtaion in which the character exists. Things that actors need to figure out for themselves (age, weather...)
Super objective:
The overall goal of the character
Emotional Recall
remembering past experiences to draw upon to help performers achieve a sense of emotional truth onstage.
Who is the producer?
The person(s) who supervises and controls the finances, the creation, and the public presentation of the play.
What is the producer responsible for? 8 things
1. See the property
2. Secure the property
3. Get backers
4. Set up a company (protect people who invest in the play)
5. Hire creative artists (artistic vision)
6. Do workshop tp work out problems of the play
7. Promote and market the product (commercials, get the word out)
8. Produce final product
a thing that can be owned or marketed
people to put money into the play
What is the one thing that producers should NEVER do?
producers should never put their own money into the project
Who is the first person that the producer hires?
the directer
Who is the first person who reaps the benifits of the box office money?
The producer
Secondary Markets:
movie rental stores, cds...
to pay for the right to produce something that has already been produced
Profit Loss:
Write off losses on your taxes/file for bankruptsy
Who is the director?
the person who supervises creative aspects of a dramatic production
What are the responsibilities of the director? 5 things
1. Choose the property/play
2. Prepare for the play.
3. Cast the parts
4. Rehearse
5. Bring different elements of production into single, organic whole.
2 kinds of directors:
1. Serves vision of playwrite (interpretice)
2. Primary artist of the play (auteur)
Drama turg:
assists the director by researching the history/life of person who wrote the play.
What are 4 things that directors look for when casting parts?
1. physical attributes
2. talent
3. can they grow?
4. match actors with other actors.
Auteur Director:
Manipulates the text, has to chance the meaning of the script to be auteur.
The director discoveres the _____, the main _____ of the play.
spine, action
An autuer director works when he is _______ and ________
popular, successful
Good directors:
ask good questions
Stage picture:
captures the moment, communicates something, and most of the time there are no words.
tech rehearsals:
integration of all external elements
run through
practice with tech
dress rehearsal:
practice with clothes (moving, getting in and out, see if costumes fit)
stage manager:
coordinates rehearsals and running of performance (GOD)
#1 rule of producer:
never use own money
# 1 responsibility of producer:
fill the seats
Sound design is the most ______ ______ or ______ _____/______ in theatre or in life.
emotional binding, recogizable force/element
2 objectives of sound designer:
1. Provide all background and other effects called for in the production.
2. To reinforce spoken and musical sounds.
The use of motivated or environmental sounds
Motivated sounds:
sounds called for by the script. A sequence that could annouce the arrival of a character at a house where a scene is at.
Environmental Sounds:
noises of everyday life that help create verisimilitude in a production. (street traffic in a city, crickets in the country) atmosphere.
Sound Effects:
any sounds produced by electronic or human means to create for the audience. A noise associated with the play
What is an alternative was of communicating to the audience?
scene and costume design
signify, communicate meaning
3 functions of a scene/ costume designer
1. to facilitate dramatic action. Help director to create a roadmap for the stage.
2. to aid in the understanding of the environment
3. to help establish characterization. (what century we are in, what sex...)
theatre is a _________ art.
good scenic/costume design should aid in the production by: 4 things
1. communicating
2. contributing
3. being a team player
4. being theatrical
good plays speak on:
2 or 3 levels
stage/costume design communicates.....
-the appropriate first impression for the audience member.
-the "road map" for the stage space
-the tone and mood for the production
elements of design: 5 things
1. line (convey meaning)
2. shape/space(occupied "mass"/scale)
3. color-signifies
4. texture
5. ornament
everything you see on the stage that dressed the stage up
stage/costume design contributes useful information which helps establish the following: 6 things
1. place and locale
2. time and period
3. style of the production
4. social status of the characters
5. how nad where the actors are able to move on teh stage
6. how we move from locale to locale.
What is the design process? 8 steps
1. get an assignment or job/read the play
2. meet with the director and other designers (boundaries, limitations, support)
3. research, search for visual images and your design ideas
4. Record initial ideas and research by rough sketching
5. meet with directors and other designers (approval to continue, refine rough sketches to final sketches)
6. Develop rough floor plan and a "final" sketch
7. draft design elements into scale plans for constuction
8. Build a final model and/or paint final rendering
white model:
model that is all white to show the producer/director the scale space
a good costume design should indicate: 6 things
1. postition/status
2. gender
3. occupation
4. outgoing, modest
5. independant/regimented
6. occasion (work or leisure)
sketches that help to convey what the costume will look like.
properties of light: 4
1. intensity (how bright)
2. color (CRI)
3. distribution-where light goes
4. movement-how light chages (intensity, color)
objectives of lighting: 5
1. selected visability
2. revalation of form
3. composition (creating a picture on stage)
4. information (day or night)
5. mood
Color Rendering Index: 100-natural sunlight
revelation of form:
can make people look shorter, taller, skinnier, fatter.
Which obgective of lighting is important for dance?
revelation of form
"all you need is 2 boards and a passion"
Lope DeVega
The struggle for lighting designers is trying to:
approximate nature's lighting
"light is to the production what music is to the score.
Adolph Appia
Lighting design is the thing that:
pulls the production together
lighting design happens at the ____ ______ of the production process
very end
the 2 latest technologies in theatre are:
sound and lighting
The 1st lighting designer is:
nature-the sun
Greek Theatre 2000BC
natural light
1500AD globular theatre
candles used at nite
iol lamps
steady burning, stronger sense of brightness and illuminated stage better, dangerous and dirty, fires dues to spills.
1840's, 50's, 60's
gas (hook cured animal intestines to gas lines and light it
-explostions and fires
end of 19 cent
five functions of lighting design
1. provides illumination
2. creates environment
3. establishes mood
4. provides focus
5. revelation of form
four controllable qualities of light:
1. distribution
2. intensity or brightness
3. movement
4. color
light plot
a schematic that shows the kind of instrument you are going to use, where you are going to use it, and where it plugs into the dimmer console board
typles of lighting instruments:
fresnel, ellipsoidal reflector spotlight (ERS), parcans, scoops, gobo
workhorse lighting instrument in theatre. up-close work, hanging over stage.
-throw of light very short
-soft and forgiving on skin
-names for augustan fresnel
-made for lighthouses
ellipsiodal reflector spotlight (ERS)
-2nd major workhorse of theatre
-long throw of light. collects a lot of light
-blast of light, little control of light
-work light for scene designers
-blast of light
-painted aluminum on inside
-allows creation of patterns from light
-theatre in the round
-go into ERS
Key light
light source, primary source
fill light
the shadow, color of the shadow
side light
reveal the 3d form of body
light that hits the performer at the top of the head and shoulders
mobius strip
repeats itself
Fire's in the Mirror: The Crown Height Affair
Anna Daverea Smith
-Jewish and African/Carribian
-ADS interviewed the town
-documentary theatre
Power is all about _______. ______ is a reflection of _______. If you don't have _____, you dont have ______.
access, visability, access, visability, power
All in the Familty
-radically transformed tv
-ok to show minorities
-america wanted to see it
Theatre of Diversity: 3
1. speaks to specific communitites and its concerns
2. celebrates your existance
3. raises conciousness of dominant classes to minority issues.
2 kinds of audiences
1. Homogenious
2. Heterogenious
theatre attracts _____ to ____ class people who are reletively __________ and who usually want to be _______ ________
middle to upper, well educated, challenged intellectually
political theatreL
-objective is to educate you
-liberal entity
-chellenges you to think in ways that you are reluctant to
-create what is already out in the culture
theatre is a ______. it is a reflection of ______
mirror, society
Performance Art
-deals with an individual artist and subject matter that is highly personal using their body as an object
-the emphasis is not on a story or a character, but autobiographical raw material
Art is ______, it is not ______
serious, frivalous
the role of artists is to:
ask the difficult questions
art and artists beg that you engage in a:
dialouge with their works
"life liberty and the persuit of happiness"
thomas jefferson
polorizing views
-artisits are godless communists
-artists exhibit radical behavior
-artists are nonconformists
-artists, rather than listening to what society imposes on them, decide for themselves what they want to do
-art in our culture is not a good thing b/c there is fear that it asks you to question yourself
definitions of art: 5
1. art is whatever a representative of the art world says it is
2. art is something that you can percieve that the work has. Rules the work has. Not random
3. art has to be done intentionally
4. art is an artifact or image with symbolic meaning. As a means to communicate something
5. art is myseterious
art is whatever:
the dominant morals and values of a given community says it is
when anybody or a body of individuals skeep to keep or refrain information from ebing received by you.
national endownment for the arts
-sponsor groups and organizations as well as individual artists
"In time, societies and great civilizations are not remembered for their policies, wars, beaucratic institutions, but for the art that they contribute to mankind"
John F. Kennedy
Piss Christ
Andres Serrano
The Holy Virgin Mary
Chris Ofili
Robert Mapple Thorpe
Nude, The perfect Moment
The NEA Four
4 individual performance artisits whose funding was dropped in 1990
-the NEA no longer funds individual artists.
how aer dance and theatre similar
the instrument in which the art is brought to life is the same. -The human body
Theatre and Dance
-reflects life
-are experienced live
-are collaborative in nature
-communicate ideas verbally and non-verbally
Choreographers create dance:
from a blank canvas
In dance, the ____ is the storyteller
Choreographers deals with:
time, space, dimension, the physical limitations of his cast/dancers, and his/her creative potential.
Plot constructs: 2
Climactic and Episodic
Climactic plot structure:
-plot starts late in story
-sovers a short period of time
-set ina restricted locale
-only a handful of characters
-linear plot. few, if any, subplots
-all action is cause and effect
Episodic plot structure:
-plot starts early in story and moves through a series of episodes
-plot may cover days, months, years
-profusion of characters
other plot constructs:
ritual, femanist, experimental
What are the five writing steps in playwriting?
1. Inner Readiness
2. Germinal Ideas
3. Colection
4. Scenerio
5. Final Draft
how a play is categorized according to its characteristics. eg comedy, tragedy
two major genres:
tragedy-a serious action that makes us question human existance and arouses sympathy and admiration for the main character
comedy- a humorous action that deviates from the norm in regards to ideas or behavior. It does not ever present a serious threat.
4 characteristics for comic effect:
1. behavior
2. ideas
3. appearance
4. speech
asking yourself if you are like the characters and what the character is like as a person.
"The end of art is to figure out the hidden meaning of things"
Aristotle. The whole point of art is to look beyond the surface and see what the art erpresents and what it means.
Who wrote the Republic and who wrote the Poetics and what do they have to do with each other?
Plato and Aristotle-they both have to do with art and theatre. Plato opposes theatre and Aristotle embraces it.
What are the two purposes of theatre?
to educate and entertain
Theatre is composed of 6 elements:
1. Plot
2. Character
3. Thought-theme of the play, ideas about which this play deals with
4. Diction/Language-accent, yelling and screaming, soft talking
5. Music-everything you hear in the world of teh play other than the diction. Can heighten emotion and cue you in about how you are supposed to feel
6. Spectacle-everything you see in the world of the play. Least important
not always, but very often, __________________ + time = __________
a bad situation, comedy
This can go from good to bad, bad to worse, or from bad to good.
What is the definition for humanities?
the study of ourselves, the study of man
under humanities, we have three kinds of art, what are they?
literary, visual, and performing
what are 3 theories as to the origin of theatre?
man's innate desire to:
1. imitate or mimic
2. play
3. tell a story
three things that must be present in order for theatre to exist:
1. audience
2. actors
3. somthing to communicate

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