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Nonverbal (7-12)


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the effects of body movements and postures on communication
contraction position
message of apprehension, fear, and worry is being sent
extension position
communicate we are relaxed, not afraid, or do not feel threatened
people tend to position themselves face-to-face as if to defend themselves
people position themselves side-by-sde
-Negative Attitude: -face-to-face stance -arms akimbo-hands placed on hips, elbows extended laterally -Positive Attitude: -side-by-side posture
-High Status with Low Status: -body orientations are more direct, face-to-face (competition and negative attitude) -high status people often assume arms akimbo -high status people often exhibited elevating their heads -high status = more relaxed, extended positions -low status = more animated, contracted positions
emotional states
face identifies emotion, body identifies intensity of that felt emotion
approval seeking
approval seekers animated
-when men and women congregate there is a good possibility that flirtatious behavior will be exhibited -behaviors seem to be triggered by biological reactions to the arrival/presence or behaviors of another person -for most part behaviors are benign and harmless
-tells us who is with whom and who is not with whom -general body orientations of those who are together: speed at which walking, closeness, adjustments made in response to crowded environments
-a reliable indicator of lying is when the hand goes to the face -the liar might unconsciously be trying to hide the lie, giving graphic representation of that unconscious intent -liar is an approach-avoidance conflict: liar wants to say the lie, and wants to not say the lie→hand = urge to block the lie
-kinesically lies best detected by looking at feet, then legs, arms, hands, and face last -most liars aware observers will be looking at face, so they put all their energy into controlling face→cues "leak out" through arms, legs, feet -leakage usually indicated through subtle movements
interaction markers
-interpersonal encounters have 3 stages: 1. greeting ceremony 2. the heat of the encounter/discussion 3. farewell ceremony -shifts in postures indicate different stages nonverbally communicate when it is time to go: look at watch, change body orientation, gaze, more animated head nods -public speakers often mark steps of speeches kinesically: 1. introduction 2. discussion: contraction, greater forward lean 3. conclusion: relaxed position -exception is emotional-appeal speech, in which goal is to build emotion in audience until end of speech→speaker becomes increasingly animated
-gestures that have a direct verbal translation, which is widely known in a given culture -substitutes for words -used when speech is inappropriate -intentional signals and seldom reveal any personal information about the sender
-gestures that are used to augment what is being said or to strengthen or weaken the emotional content of the verbal message -used to amplify and clarify -can increase accuracy of message transmission and reception -use increases when listeners don't appear to be comprehending what speaker is saying
movements that accent a particular word or phrase
deictic movements
point to an object, place, or event
rhythmic movements
gestures that suggest the rhythm of an event being described
draw pictures in air in shape of referent
affect displays
-gestures that are very much yoked to facial expressions -communicated below level of awareness -reveal something about personality of sender
-gestures that regulate human interactions -signal beginning, maintainence, and end of interaction -automatic and produced with low level of awareness
-gestures that reveal something about a communicator's personality -below level of awareness
hand to body gestures
object adaptors
gestures where hands are used to touch or hold objects in immediate environment
microkinesic analysis
-body movements and postures are visually recorded at one speed and analyzed at another speed -used to analyze human interaction, resolve sports questions, and reduce analysis time -by recording body movements on high-speed and replaying them at slow speeds, detected minute movements and movement patterns that one normally wouldn't notice
macrokinesic analysis
-visual recordings are made and analyzed at the same speed -suitable when neither sophisticated microanalyses nor compression of lengthy visual recordings is required -less costly
events that are happening simultaneously
-one's body movements are in sync with one's speech→one's body moves in sync with the stress patterns of one's speech -Condon (1967): speakers do a "body dance" which is in synchrony with their verbal output
self-other synchrony alpha
-one's body moves in sync with another's speech -Condon & Ogston (1967): this type of synchrony begins in the first week of life when the baby's body moves in sync with the mother's voice or to the sound of any natural language -nonverbal sign of identification
self-other synchrony beta
-one's body moves in sync with another person's body -may be identical or non-identical -in true synchrony no one leads and no one follows, the movements occur simultaneously
medical professionals emulate or match in character the body stance, movements or gestures, of clients→communicates to patients that they're understood
did microkinesic analysis
quasi-courtship behaviors are like a dance, the moves of a pair become coordinated and synchronous
-believes the universe is an orderly place marked by harmony and cooperation revealed in synchronous movements and actions -contrasts Chaos Theory: -examples of glorious patterns of synchronous nonverbal behavior: fireflies, fads, fish , neurons, traffic,women
mirror neuron
one that is active when the individual in whose brain it is engages in some action or experiences of some sensation or emotion or observes that particular action, sensation, or emotion in someone else; to feel with someone and to move with someone is brain based
we communicate through one of three modes and nonverbal communication peculiar to each:anyone at any time can communicate through any one of the three modes
communication is corrective or nurturing
communication is civil, respectful
communication is through joyous child (positive emotions) or tantrum child (negative emotions)
sleep postures communicate information about us
strong desire for protection, central core, need for security, resist exposing themselves to life's full joys and sorrows
well balanced, secure
sleeps on elbows and knees; fear sleep, reflect general anxiety
sleeps on stomach with arms and legs resembling swastika; well balanced and secure
secure, self confident, strong personalities, often favorite child growing up (center of attention)
mummy: shut out troubles of their lives, grieving, hiding from world
sleep on stomachs with legs fully extended arms in referees touchdown; show a compulsion to regulate the events of life, don't like unexpected
in early stages of relationship, emotional attraction is high
arms akimbo
hands placed on hips, elbows extended laterally
two spoons opposed
turned in opposite directions; may not be an indication of a lessening affection
two spoons enmeshed
chaos theory
hold that the world is in a constant state of disorder
Gerry Spence
your body communicates in every way to people. if your words say one truth and your body is saying another truth, ill tell you which youll believe, youll believe the truth of the body over the truth of words
the effects of the face on communication
refers to the mask
-reported that threatening masks that had a threatening function contained more diagonal angular features, and non threatening masks had contour and curvature, much like the preferences of babies -conducted a study at a 50 year highschool reunion, older people could recognize the faces of their classmates but not their names
threatening masks
masks that contain more diagonal and angular features such as vertical lines between the eyebrows, diagonal cheekbone lines, triangular eyes and nose, pointed chin and ears
nonthreatening masks
masks that contain more curvi-linear features and contour
fusiform gyrus
the part of the brain that seems to be responsible for facial recognition, located in a small area behind the right ear
sufferers of this condition have damage to the fusiform gyrus area of the temporal lobe on the right side of the brain, and as a result lose or have impaired ability to recognize even familiar faces
head shape that is long and narrow
head shape that is wide and short
primary facial regions that communicate this emotion are the eyes and the mouth and cheeks, easy to identify
primary facial regions that communicate this emotion are the eyes, and the brows and forehead, difficult to identify
primary facial region that communicates this emotion is the eyes, difficult to identify
primary facial regions that communicate this emotion are the eyes and the mouth and cheeks, easy to identify
the primary facial regions that communicates this emotion the brows and forehead and mouth and cheeks, moderately difficult to identify
the primary facial region that communicates this emotion is the mouth and cheeks, difficult to identify
the transitional periods between one facially expressed emotion and another, not a pure emotion, but a hybrid made up of the parts of at least two others
categorical approach
a person is expressing a single emotion at any given moment and this singularity is broken only when the face is in a state of transition, changing from one emotion to another.
dimensional approach
at any given moment the face transmits not one dominant meaning, but a number of dimensions of meaning
Ekman and Friesen
-face is the key communicator of emotions -their research shows that there are 6 emotions that can be communicated reliably and accurately, and are universal -in analyzing facial expressions, they divided the face into three areas: brows/forehead, the eyes, mouth/cheek
concluded that the face communicates the 5 dimensions of meaning
display rules
the rules that people follow to manage their facial expressions to meet the demands of a situation
cultural rules
we learn that certain emotions should not be shown in public, these rules dont forbid the showing of an emotion but may demand that adjustments in the intensity of the expression be made
moment-demand rules
in many situations we have time to anticipate how we might manage our facial expressions, however in these moments instant management is require
when we add a second expression as a comment on the expression just displayed-smile and say "i was just kidding"
when we change the intensity of a facial expression to show either more or less than what is actually felt
when we show an emotion when no emotion is felt or when we show no emotion when in reality an emotion is felt
sender based
the left side of the face is more expressive because it is driven by the nonverbal right side of the brain
receiver based
the left side of the brain is nonverbally dumb therefore it needs a stronger nonverbal signal from the other person, and the other person provides it
his research supported that facially expressed emotions are displayed more intensely on the left side of the face than on the right...photographed subjects as they posed for the 6 emotions found to be universal, and added a 7th category-no emotion, each of the photographs was then processed to produce three photographs..1 was the original, the second was made up of two right halves of a face, and the third was made up of two left halves of a face, judges were asked to rate the intensity of the photographs, and they all voted the two lefts as most intense.
-research found that there was a high and positive relationship between one's satisfaction with ones face and ones self image..
a group of faces is placed in the memory of the face recognition processor, this group of faces is referred to as the face bank, these faces are selected based on the goals of the client who wants to identify faces
targeted faces are compared with those enrolled in face banks, a match between a target face and a face in the face bank is the goal
face recognition processor reports findings
Digital Personnel
computer based facial expression synthesizer, it synthesizes animated, life-like facial expressions of an individual in synchrony with that individual's speech the system is speech driven-the individual speaks and the appropriate facial expressions are generated simultaneously
phonetically balanced
a passage that has all the phonemes of english represented in a variety of phonemic contexts
evaluation dimension
facial expressions that communicate the degree to which a stimulus is pleasant or unpleasant
interest-disinterest dimension
facial expressions that communicate the degree to which one is interested in a stimulus
intensity dimension
facial expressions that communicate the degree to which one is involved in a situation
control dimension
facial expressions that communicate the degree to which one can control one's facial expressions
intellectual dimension
facial expressions that communicate the degree to which one understands a situation
method actors
try to recall a situation in their own lives where they felt the emotions that they are to portray
when touch is ____ the individuals are of equal status
when touch is ____ there is a difference in status
divided the courtship sequence into 12 steps
practitioners hands will hover over parts of body that have energy imbalance
Kriegar and Kanz
therapeutic touch-there is a universal life energy force which flows freely through the body when a person is healthy, when a person is not healthy the force is interrupted and a state of imbalance exists, it is the practitioners job to bring that balance back
supports research that pets can bring about not only psychological benefits but also physical ones as well
touch is therapeutic in diagnostic sense-used touch to locate the locus of post traumas
reported on 2 studies that massages had therapeutic value -massaged cancer patients -massaged med students before an exam-increase in killer t cells, massage braced them for threatening situation
mimic effects of opiate drugs, help in suppression of pain, with discovery of these a physiological mechanism was identified which validated efficacy of touch therapy
Harlow and Harlow
observed effects of isolation on newborn primates and the mothering
conducted a study on how being cuddled as an infant is instrumental in how well one handles stress and how well one remembers
part of brain involved in memory
touch and development vaginal birth vs caesarean birth
found that infants in orphanages suffered from marasmus and analytic depression with higher mortality rates because they werent loved, held, cuddled, in general they werent tactilely stimulated
physical wasting away
analytic depression
psychological wasting away
bonding theory
during the first few hours of life there is a sensitive period when close physical contact with the mother is necessary if the baby is to develop properly, developed by Klaus
focused research on touch and infants particularly premature infants, instituted a touch program for premies the program consisted of gently massaging the premature infant
claimed the bonding theory was a scientific myth only created to keep obgyns in a job
criticized bonding theory on methodological backgrounds-too few subjects in the study from which theory was derived
built up the fat in the arteries of experimental rabbits through diet in order to see if his experimental drugs could lower the levels of the arterial fat deposits..tested two groups of rabbits-fed them the same diet-one group had lower cholesterol due to the fact that the person in charge of taking care of them visited and cuddle them multiple times a day
the practitioner moves their hands in a circular sweeping pattern balancing the nergy by moving excess energy to areas of low flow
compare weight gain inpremature infants placed on lambs wool with their weight gain when they were placed on regular hosptal sheets,
the effects of space on communication
a behavior by which an organism lays claim to an area and defends it
James Island
from this the hypothesis that crowding can cause severe stress which can result in death emerged
human crowding causes aggression and wars
believed that language, not crowding, causes wars
dynamic space
the space factors that are ever changing: interpersonal space
static space
the relatively unalterable aspects of space: landscape, buildings, rooms, furniture, etc
studied the relationship between the activity in which people were engaged and the seating arrangement they preferred while engaged in the activity examples: when conversing people sit opposite one another
Stone and Stone
the success of a gathering of any kind is largely determined not by the speaker subject matter or participants, but by the size, comfort, number, and location of the chairs
studied normal individuals who had themselves admitted into mental hospitals by faking symptoms, upon admittance they exhibited no mental illness, but were treated as though they were mentally ill, concluded that the space you are in will define you
studied obedience-The Milgram study, concluded that the results of a behavioral science study are dependent on the space in which the study is conductedshocks
studied friendship patterns in apartment buildings, concluded that the number of friends that you have and the depths of those friendships may be dependent upon the location of the space in which you live
Maslow and Mintz
found that a person's perceived attractiveness was greater when that person was viewed in an attractive environment
labeled spaces that are always communication and communicating silently about peoples likes, dislikes, habits, and behaviors in general as silent messages
unobtrusive measures
provide data about human attitudes and behaviors without interfering with the human's performances and without the humans; knowledge that data is being collected about them
concluded that physical barriers could help ameliorate the effects of crowding, overpopulation causes stress which upsets the endocrine system, and as a result, sink behaviors occur, often leading to death
humans may not always react to crowding as do non-humans
sink conditions
control population because they cause failures in mating and parenting, physical and psychopathologies, and intra-species aggression
the effects of touch on communication
the use of the eyes in communication
lateral eye movements
civil inattention
when strangers approach each other on the street they tend to establish eye contact when they are about 15 feet from one another, they break that contact, and they do not reestablish it again
hypothesized that when people are asked a question requiring though, they tend to break eye contact with the questioner
left movers
means that a person is recalling, they are retrieving something from their memory images that were stored there previously
right movers
means that a person is creating, producing something that never existed before
Bandler and Grinder
hypothesized that eye movements can communicate the type of neural processing in which one is engaged
Tecce and Stern
believes blinking has communicative value, excess blinking communicates anxiety
believed the pupil has a secondary function, that function is communicative
pupil dilation
pupil dilates/expands when we see something we like
means beautiful lady, the effect of which is to dilate the woman's pupils, making her more attractive
gaze patterns
patterns observed and how those patterns could communicate preference or what the gazer liked
augmentative communication device
speak the message that the user visually typed in
the effects of voice on communication
the selective amplification of selected frequencies in a sound
structures that allow us to alter the sound generated by the vocal cords
the vocal cords are vibrating when the sound is produced
the vocal cords are not vibrating when the sound is produced
published data suggesting that the emotional disturbance manifested in certain psychopathologies may be communicated by specific vocal signals
hysterical anphonia
the loss of voice due to experiencing or witnessing a traumatic experience
a device designed to detect lying through vocal analysis, not as reliable as once thought
studied the effects of the physicians voice on patients' compliance their following of medical conditions
subjects' performance in an experiment may be dependent on how they are vocally greeted and instructed
air conduction
the sound travels through the air to our outer ear, then to the middle ear, and finally to the inner ear where sound energy is converted to electrical energy for transmission to the brain
bone conduction
the sound is transmitted directly to the inner ear through the bones in the body, adds richness to our voices when we here our voices live
argues that voice carries with it the memory of past traumas, the vocal cords hold muscle, and muscles hold memories which is why we don't like to hear our recorded voices
found that the voice is a reliable communicator of emotion
Dylan Thomas
wrote In a Child's Christmas in Wales, described the voices of the very old as frail eggshell voices
studies of the cycles in human organisms and what is communicated by these cycles
medical chronobiology
studies the life cycles in an effort to improve diagnostic and treatment procedures
research aimed at designing drugs that attack the symptom or prevent the trauma at the time when the symptom or trauma is most likely to occur
stimulate heart and increase its rate, the world moves slowly
drug makes world move too rapidly
reported that on average doctors let patients talk for just 23 seconds before interrupting them
published data to show that time can differentiate people in line with the diagnostic categories to which the people were assigned
studied the chronemic factors of a job interview: length of silence, length of time interviewer talked, and length of time applicant talked
quality time
a kind of time elongation in that we try to perform in such a way that a shorter time duration is equal to a longer duration
wrote future shock, thesis: technology had changed the way we think, perceive, perform, and relate to others
the effects of time on communication
language, not crowding causes wars
Lieber and Agel
believe there is a strong relationship between human aggression and the lunar cycle--> lunatic
concluded that behavior fell into cycle with two distinct periods of 23 and 28 days, the 23 day cycle described a persons physical competence at a given time, while the 28 day cycle described a persons emotional state at any given time, the cycles were also discovered by Fleiss
added another 33 days in length that described a person's intellectual competence at a given time
critical days
one in which one or more of the cycles is crossing the baseline, that is the cycle is either crossing the baseline on the way up or on the way down it is changing from the upper half to the lower half or vice versa

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