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Abnormal Psychology


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The presense of two or more disorders in the same person.
Abnormal behavior
Behabior that deviates from norms of a society
short in duration
long lasting
Analogue Studies
The real behavior is not studied, rather some approximation to it
Case Study
When an individual situation or behavior is being observed and described
ABAB Design
A: baseline B: introduce treatment A: retract treatment and compare with baseline B: reintroduce treatment and compare with B
Family Aggregation
whether a disorder runs in a family
a naming system
A person's self concept may be directly affected by being given a diagnosis.
the study of the distribution of diseased, disorders or health related behaviors in a given population.
the number of active cases in a population during any given period of time.
Point prevalence
The estimated proportion of actual, active cases of the disorder in a given population at an instant in time.
1 year prevelance
the number of people who suffered from a disorder in one year
lifetime prevelance
The number of people who have suffered from a particular disorder in thier lifetime.
number of new cases that occur over a given period of time
direct observation
observation and recording done by trained observers
self-report data
data collected from the research participants themselves
Individuals are relected who are representative of a much larger group of individuals
comparison or control group
A group of people who do not exhibit the disorder being studied but who are comparable in all other major respects to the criterion group
observational research
doesn't involve any manipulation of variables. Ther researchers selcet groups of intrest and then compare the groups on a variety of different characteristics.
prospective studies
focus on individuals who are likely to aquire the disorder of interest
retrospective studies
focus on individuals who have already aquired the disorder of interest
dependent variable
outcome of interest
independent variable
the factor being manipulated
experimental research
Research that involves the manipulation of one variable while all other variables stay constant
Explain what an ABAB design is. Why are such designs helpful to clinicians and reserachers?
If two variables are coorelated, does this mean that one variable causes the other? why?
Mass Madness
The widespred occurrence of group hebavior disorders that were apparently cases of hysteris.
A disorder that included an uncontrollable impulse to dance that was often attributed to the bite of the southern European tarantula or wolf spider.
A condition in which people believed themselves to be possessed by wolves and imitated thier behavior.
Describe the role of supernatural beliefs in efforts to understand mental disorders during the Middle Ages
What were the historical views of the disorder of meancholia (known today as depression)?
Legal term for mental disorder, implying lack of control of ones behavior.
moral management
A widerange method of treatment that focused on a patients social, individual and occupational needs.
Mental hygiene movement
Advocated a mehtod treatment that focused almost exclusively on the physical well being of hospitalized mental patients.
Closing down mental hospitals and reintegrating individuals with psychiatric disorders into the community.
Major Depressive Disorder
The presence of one or more depressive episodes, with no history of mania or hypermania.
Major Depressive Episode
one of the following for atleast two weeks: 1. depressed mood most of the day nearly every day 2.diminished interest or pleasure in most activities plus four of the following: - weight change -sleep change -psychomotor retardation or agitation -loss of energy -feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt -can't concentrate or make decisions -suicidal thoughts
Catatonic Type Depression
-motoric immobility or stupor -excessive purposeless motor activity -extreme negativism or mutism -posturing or stereotypical movements -echolalia or schopraxia
Melancholic Type Depression
-loss of pleasure in all or most activities -lack of reactivity to pleasurable activities -depression worse in the morning -early morning wakening -extreme weight loss -excessive or inappropriate guilt
Atypical Type Depression
-mood reactivity -weith gain -hypersomnia -leaden paralysis -long standing pattern of interpersonal rejection sensitivity -
Postpartum Onset Type Depression
-onset of depression within four weeks postpartum -may include psychotic feratures -may include anxiety and panic attacks -risk is 1 in 500-1 in 1,000 births -risk of psychotic postpartume depression increases to 30-50% if previous episode
Prefrontal Lobotamy
Surgical precedure used before the advent of antipsychotic drugs, in which the frontal lobes of the brain were severed from the deeper centers underlying them, resulting in permanent structural changes in the brain.
Phillip Pinel(1745-1826)
Placed in charge of the La Bicetre in Paris in 1792. He expanded his predisesors advances in humanistic treatment of patients, but removing many patients from chains and straight jackets and allowed them to excersise and interact with each other and to expect kindness from hospital staff.
Dorothea Dix (1802-1887)
An advocate for individuals living in asylums, jails and institutions. She submitted her famous, Memorial, to Congress in 1848 stating that she had personaly seen over 9000 people living in these institutions 'deprived of appropriate care and protection...bound in chains, and ropes...subject to jibes, scorn, and torturing tricks.' Due to her efforts the Hygiene movement grew in America. She also directed the opening of two institutions in Canada and involved in asylum reform in Scotland.

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