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Music 10 Final


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passage of improvisatory display for the soloist, especially in a concerto.
German composer of the Romantic period. He was born in Hamburg and in his later years he settled in Vienna, Austria. Brahms' works in variation form include the Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Handel
musical Impressionism focused on suggestion and atmosphere rather than strong emotion or the depiction of a story as in program music. Musical Impressionism occurred as a reaction to the excesses of the Romantic era. While this era was characterized by a dramatic use of the major and minor scale system, Impressionist music tends to make more use of dissonance and more uncommon scales such as the whole tone scale. Romantic composers also used long forms of music such as the symphony and concerto, while Impressionist composers favored short forms such as the nocturne, arabesque, and prelude.
a form of jazz characterized by fast tempos and improvisation based on harmonic structure rather than melody. It was developed in the early and mid-1940s. It first surfaced in musicians' argot some time during the first two years of the Second World War.
Musical style in which rhythms, melodies, or instruments evoke the color and atmosphere of far-off lands.
the forcing of any people or ethnic population to leave their traditional homelands, the dispersal of such people, and the ensuing developments in their culture.
bel canto opera
"beautiful singing", prevailing vocal ideal in solo vocal music from the Baroque forward
Subdivision of time, principally by establishing length of notes
Musical stability as perceived in certain intervals and chords.
symphonic or tone poem
One-movement work for orchestra with narrative or descriptive intent.
Sicilian opera composer. Known for his flowing melodic lines, he was the quintessential composer of Bel canto opera.
thematic transformation
the recomposition of a theme as it is reused so that gradually its character becomes radically different.
first successful American female composer of large-scale art music.
the mighty hand
a circle of composers who met in Saint Petersburg, Russia, in the years 1856-1870: Mily Balakirev (the leader), César Cui, Modest Mussorgsky, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, and Alexander Borodin. The group had the aim of producing a specifically Russian kind of art music, rather than one that imitated older European music or relied on European-style conservatory training. In a sense, they were a branch of the Romantic Nationalism movement in Russia, with the Abramtsevo Colony and Russian Revival striving to achieve similar goals in the sphere of fine arts.
text of an opera
- a French composer. He is considered one of the most prominent figures working within the field of Impressionist music, though he himself intensely disliked the term when applied to his compositions. Debussy was not only among the most important of all French composers but also was a central figure in all European music at the turn of the twentieth century.
chance music
is music in which some element of the composition is left to chance or some primary element of a composed work's realization is left to the determination of its performer(s). The term is most often associated with procedures in which the chance element involves a relatively limited number of possibilities.
an American composer. A pioneer of chance music, electronic music and non-standard use of musical instruments, one of the leading figures of the post-war avant-garde and, in the opinion of many, the most influential American composer of the 20th century.He was also instrumental in the development of modern dance
French Romantic composer, best known for his compositions Symphonie fantastique and Grande Messe des morts (Requiem). Berlioz made great contributions to the modern orchestra with his Treatise on Instrumentation and by utilizing huge orchestral forces for his works, sometimes calling for over 1,000 performers.[1] At the other extreme, he also composed around 50 songs for voice and piano.
Unpleasantness or instability perceived in certain intervals and chords; the opposite is consonance.
electronic music
refers to music that emphasizes the use of electronic musical instruments or electronic music technology as a central aspect of the sound of the music. Historically, electronic music was considered to be any music created with the use of electronic musical instruments or electronic processing, but in modern times, that distinction has been lost because almost all recorded music today, and the majority of live music performances, depend on extensive use of electronics.
Tan Dun
Chinese contemporary classical composer, most widely known for his Grammy and Oscar-award winning scores for the movies Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon and Hero.
an American composer of modernist classical music. He is widely regarded as one of the first American classical composers of international significance. Ives' music was largely ignored during his life, and many of his works went unperformed for many years. Over time, Ives would come to be regarded as an "American Original". experimental music , with musical techniques including polytonality, polyrhythm, tone clusters, aleatoric elements, and quarter tones
- refers to the use of musical ideas or motifs that are identified with a specific country, region, or ethnicity, such as folk tunes and melodies, rhythms, and harmonies inspired by them. Musical nationalism can also include the use of folklore as a basis for programmatic works including opera.
theme and variations
movement type where the given theme is modified in a series of variations
symbolist poetry
- as a type and movement in poetry, emphasized non-structured "internalized" poetry that, for lack of better words, describe thoughts and feelings in disconnected ways and places logic, formal structure, and descriptive reality in the back seat.
Work built on an ostinato bass, often an descending chromatic bass.
a French composer, the younger sister of the noted composer and composition teacher Nadia Boulanger. Psalm 24.
Regarded during his life as a pioneer, he is now widely considered one of the most influential of jazz musicians, along with Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington. He played a leading role in the development of bebop, a form of jazz characterized by fast tempos, virtuoso technique, and improvisation based on harmonic structure. His innovative approaches to melody, rhythm, and harmony exercised enormous influence on his contemporaries.
1) Arrival at harmonic rest. 2) In parade music, the drumbeat
blues composer and musician, often known as the "Father of the Blues" among the most influential of American songwriters, syncopated rhythms, a style unique to his music.
musique concrete
a style of avant-garde music that relies on recorded sounds, including natural environmental sounds and other non-inherently-musical noises to create music.
12-tone technique, serial music
a method of musical composition devised by Arnold Schoenberg. The technique is a means of ensuring that all 12 notes of the chromatic scale are sounded as often as one another in a piece of music while preventing the emphasis of any.[1] All 12 notes are thus given more or less equal importance, and the music avoids being in a key.
Bohemian-Austrian composer and conductor. Mahler was best known during his own lifetime as one of the leading orchestral and operatic conductors of the day. He has since come to be acknowledged as among the most important late-romantic composers, although his music was never completely accepted by the musical establishment of Vienna while he was still alive. Mahler composed primarily symphonies and songs; however, his approach to genre often blurred the lines between orchestral Lied, symphony, and symphonic poem.
emphasis on the spiritual or passionate (as opposed to the intellectual) in literature, art, and music. Music from 1830 to 1900.
sacred harp
tradition of sacred choral music that took root in the Southern region of the United States. It is part of the larger tradition of shape note music.
a pulse is a series of identical, yet distinct periodic short-duration stimuli perceived as points in time
In opera, a vocal passage imitating the rhythms and inflections of speech; often a recitative is followed by an aria. When crisply delivered and accompanied by simple chords in the continuo, it is considered secco(dry), with orchestra it's accompagnato.
Czech composter, opera Bartered Bride
Polish country dance in triple meter, often with accentuation of the second beat.
program music
a form of art music intended to evoke extra-musical ideas, images in the mind of the listener by musically representing a scene, image or mood
One of the most famous jazz musicians of the 20th century, he was first known as a cornet player, then as a trumpet player, and toward the end of his career he was best known as a vocalist and became one of the most influential jazz singers.
Wagner's theory of opera wherein all branches of art, including poetry, narrative, design, and architecture, are harnessed in a global art form, opera.
American composer of concert and film music, as well as an accomplished pianist. Instrumental in forging a distinctly American style of composition, he was widely known as "the dean of American composers." Copland's music achieved a difficult balance between modern music and American folk styles, and the open, slowly changing harmonies of many of his works are said to evoke the vast American landscape. He incorporated percussive orchestration, changing meter, polyrhythms, polychords and tone rows.
a German composer) primarily known for his operas (or "music dramas", as they were later called). Unlike most other great opera composers, he wrote the scenario and libretto for his works. His compositions, particularly those of his later period, are notable for contrapuntal texture, rich chromaticism, harmonies and orchestration, and elaborate use of leitmotifs: musical themes associated with particular characters, locales or plot elements. His pioneered advances in musical language, such as extreme chromaticism and quickly shifting tonal centres, greatly influenced the development of European classical music.
absolute music
instrumental music without illustrative or programmatic intent
a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist of the Romantic period. He is widely regarded as the greatest Polish composer, and ranks as one of music's greatest tone poets.
big band/swing
a type of musical ensemble associated with playing jazz music and which became popular during the Swing Era from the early 1930s until the late 1940s. A big band typically consists of approximately 12 to 25 musicians and contains saxophones, trumpets, trombones, and a rhythm section. Jazz Band.
Russian composer of the Romantic era. While not part of the nationalistic music group known as "The Five", Tchaikovsky wrote music which was distinctly Russian: plangent, introspective, with modally-inflected melody and harmony.
magnetic tape
a medium for magnetic recording generally consisting of a thin magnetizable coating on a long and narrow strip of plastic. Nearly all recording tape is of this type, whether used for recording audio or video or for computer data storage.
American composer. He wrote most of his vocal and theatrical works in collaboration with his elder brother, lyricist Ira Gershwin. George Gershwin composed songs both for Broadway and for the classical concert hall. He also wrote popular songs with success. "Summertime"
- in music, use of melodic or harmonic distortion for expressive effect, associated with Arnold Schoenberg, Paul Hindemith, Ernst Krenek, and others.
music drama
term ascribed to the revolutionary medium of artistic expression created by the German composer Richard Wagner. This was a musical dramatic work for the theatre, where the music does not stop and is a part of the emotional telling of sung drama. It was Wagner who invented the term, and it was in large part through this form that Wagner had a major effect on the course of European classical music. The creation of this art form was borne of Wagner's thorough dissatisfaction with the prevailing trends and strictures in the operatic presentation of his time.
a Russian composer, considered by many in both the West and his native land to be the most influential composer of 20th century music.[1] He was a quintessentially cosmopolitan Russian who was named by Time magazine as one of the 100 most influential people of the century.[2] In addition to the recognition he received for his compositions, he also achieved fame as a pianist and a conductor, often at the premières of his works.
music features an emphasis on timbre and rhythm. He was the inventor of the term "organized sound", a phrase meaning that certain timbres and rhythms can be grouped together, sublimating into a whole new definition of sound. His use of new instruments and electronic resources led to his being known as the "Father of Electronic Music" while Henry Miller described him as "The stratospheric Colossus of Sound".
Lyrical manner midway in style between recitative and aria, especially in operatic solo scenes
a) an artistic movement in particular which originated as a reaction to the Enlightenment, or b) the general tendency to idealize any social behavior judged relatively simple or primitive, whether in the arts, social sciences or elsewhere. Anarcho-primitivists are one example of the latter, although others exist.
Italian Romantic composer, mainly of opera. He was one of the most influential composers of Italian opera in the 19th century. Love Duet Otello
song cycle
Group of songs, generally with texts by the same poet, unified by a story line or literary theme.
popular American music style at 20th century, characterized by strongly syncopated(ragged) rhythms ; the usual form is like that of the American march, involving two strains and a trio.
an American choral composer, and is widely regarded as the father of American choral music. David's Lamentation
a Czech composer of Romantic music, who employed the idioms and melodies of the folk music of his native Bohemia and Moravia. His works include operas, symphonic, choral and chamber music.
"Robbed time", the improvisatory adjustment of strict meter.
The defining element of virtuosity is the performance ability of the musician in question, who is capable of displaying feats of skill well above the average performer. Musicians focused on virtuosity are commonly criticized for overlooking substance and emotion in favor of raw technical prowess.
an American composer who pioneered the style of minimalism. His innovations include using tape loops to create phasing patterns (examples are his early compositions, It's Gonna Rain and Come Out), and the use of simple, audible processes to explore musical concepts. These compositions, marked by their use of repetitive figures, slow harmonic rhythm and canons, have significantly influenced contemporary music, especially in the US. Reich's work took on a darker character in the 1980s with the introduction of historical themes as well as themes from his Jewish heritage.
Maple Leaf Rag, American musician and composer of ragtime music. He remains the best-known ragtime figure and is regarded as one of the three most important composers of classic ragtime,[1] along with James Scott and Joseph Lamb, and also a precursor to Stride Jazz.
describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features.
system of music composition that establishes relationships through using of a tonal center(the tonic) and a major or minor key built from it
Composition for solo voice, usually a movement of a larger work
composed music for a wide range of ensembles and in various genres including opera, liturgical music, chamber and solo piano music. Famous for Lieder, original melodic and harmonic writing. Austrian composer
Term for a solo song, especially to a Romantic text of the late 18th or 19th century.
placing the accent on the ordinarily weak beats of a measure
Austrian composer and conductor. He was a member of the Second Viennese School. As a student and significant follower of Arnold Schoenberg, he became one of the best-known proponents of the twelve-tone technique; in addition, his innovations regarding schematic organization of pitch, rhythm and dynamics were formative in the musical technique later known as total serialism.
"leading motive", a compositional device developed by Wagner
a German composer, aesthete and influential music critic. He is one of the most famous Romantic composers of the 19th century. Carnaval.
the use of different pitches simultaneously, and chords, actual or implied, in music. the movement from one pitch simultaneously to another, and the structural principles that govern such progressions
Operatic scene for one character, generally embracing a recitative, aria, and finale close
ballet russes
a ballet company established in 1909 by the Russian impresario Serge Diaghilev. It created a sensation in Western Europe because of the great vitality of Russian ballet compared to French dance. The Ballets Russes became one of the most influential ballet companies of the 20th century, in part because of the ground-breaking artistic collaboration among choreographers, composers, and artists. That influence, in one form or another, has lasted to this day.
"forward-guard", describes the most progressive or radical element of an artistic movement
American composer. He is particularly noted for his pioneering serial, and electronic music.
American composer, pianist, and bandleader, recognized during his life as one of the most influential figures in jazz, if not in all American music. Ellington's reputation has increased since his death, including a special award citation from the Pulitzer Prize Board.
a Hungarian composer and virtuoso pianist of the 19th century. He was a renowned performer throughout Europe, noted especially for his showmanship and great skill with the piano.
Austrian and later American composer, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School. Schoenberg was known for extending the traditionally opposed German Romantic traditions of both Brahms and Wagner, and also for his pioneering innovations in atonality. developed twelve-tone technique, a widely influential compositional method of manipulating an ordered series of all twelve notes in the chromatic scale. developing variation, and was the first modern composer to embrace ways of developing motives without resorting to the dominance of a centralized melodic idea.
also tune, voice, or line, is a series of linear events or a succession, not a simultaneity as in a chord. However, this succession must contain change of some kind and be perceived as a single entity to be called a melody. this includes patterns of changing pitches and durations, while most generally it includes any interacting patterns of changing events or quality. "Melody is said to result where there are interacting patterns of changing events occurring in time."
dies irae
Gregorian plainchant for the dead; the sequence from Requiem Mass
a music genre which combines two or more genres. For example, rock and roll originally developed as a fusion of blues, gospel and country music. The main characteristics of fusion genres are variations in tempo, rhythm and sometimes the use of long musical "journeys" that can be divided into smaller parts, each with their own dynamics, style and tempo.
idee fixe
Berlioz used this term to describe the motto theme of his Symphonie Fantastique (1830), and said in the printed program that it had to do with the artist's vision of his beloved.
its broadest sense describes music that lacks a tonal center, or key. Atonality in this sense usually describes compositions written from about 1907 to the present day where a hierarchy of pitches focusing on a single, central tone is not used as a primary foundation for the work. More narrowly, the term describes music that does not conform to the system of tonal hierarchies that characterized classical European music between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries
12 bar blues form
- it has a distinctive form in both lyrics and chord structure which has been used in songs in many forms of popular music. Most commonly, lyrics are in three lines, with the first two lines almost the same with slight differences in phrasing and interjections:

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